Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.21(3) > 1089512

Na and Moon: Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Maternal Identity according to Type of Stress Coping Strategies on Immigration Pregnancy Women



The purpose of this descriptive survey study was designed to identify the stress coping types of married immigrant pregnant women and find out the differences in maternal-fetal attachment and maternal identity based on each types.


151 married immigrant women who visited 3 women's hospitals located in J-do for pre-pregnancy checkup were selected as study objects. Data were analyzed by dsecriptive statistics, cluster analysis, t- test, ANOVA, and Scheffé multiple comparison test.


Cluster analysis revealed 4 distinct stress coping styles; low stress-coping involvement social support-oriented type, high stress-coping involvement hopeful thinking type, low stress-coping involvement type, effective stress coping types. Women frequently using effective stress coping type among the four types reported higher maternal-fetal attachment. The group of active coping styles got significantly higher score on maternal identity.


Proper stress coping of married immigrant pregnant women regarding pregnancies proved to result in high levels of maternal-fetal attachment and maternal identity. Studies measuring the stress coping styles that affect pregnancies should be continuously conducted.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General Characteristics of Subjects (N=151)

Characteristic Categories n (%) or M±SD
Age (yr) 26.0±3.97
≤25 73 (48.3)
26~30 60 (39.8)
≥31 18 (11.9)
Nationality Vietnam 109 (72.2)
China 26 (17.2)
Others 16 (10.6)
Education Elementary school 39 (25.8)
Middle school 63 (41.7)
High school 49 (32.4)
Religion Yes 55 (36.4)
No 96 (63.6)
Husband age (yr) 42.8±5.45
≤40 50 (33.8)
41~50 89 (58.3)
≥51 12 (7.9)
Income monthly (10,000 won) <100 14 (9.3)
100~<150 22 (14.6)
150~<200 42 (27.8)
≥200 32 (21.2)
No idea 41 (27.2)
Table 2

Levels of Stress Coping Strategies, Maternal-Fetal Attachment, and Maternal Identity (N=151)

Variables Categories M±SD Range
Stress coping strategies 1.32±0.43 0~2.35
 Active coping strategies Problem-focused coping 1.41±0.47 0~3.00
Social support coping 1.37±0.61 0~2.28
 Passive coping strategies Emotion-focused coping 1.22±0.42 0~2.28
Involvement hopeful coping 1.37±0.58 0~2.69
Maternal-fetal attachment 2.36±0.58 1.17~4.00
Maternal identity 3.97±0.46 1.76~5.24
Table 3

Means and Standard Deviation of Four Stress Coping Strategies (N=151)

Variables n (%) Problem-focused coping Social support coping Emotion-focused coping Involvement hopeful coping
Cluster I 65 (42.7) 1.36±0.27 1.49±0.45 1.11±0.22 1.24±0.33
Cluster II 34 (22.4) 1.79±0.23 1.47±0.36 1.55±0.22 1.92±0.28
Cluster III 38 (25.0) 0.90±0.33 0.70±0.35 0.85±0.34 0.79±0.35
Cluster IV 14 (9.9) 2.15±0.33 2.38±0.31 1.91±0.27 2.23±0.42

Cluster I=Low Stress-coping involvement social support-oriented type; Cluster II=High stress-coping involvement hopeful thinking type; Cluster III=Low stress-coping involvement type; Cluster IV=Effective stress coping type.

Table 4

Means Difference in Maternal-fetal Attachment and Maternal Identity according to Stress Coping Strategies (N=151)

Variables Cluster Ia Cluster IIb Cluster IIIc Cluster IVd F (p) Multiple comparisoń
Maternal-fetal attachment 2.25±0.55 2.44±0.65 2.29±0.51 2.82±0.46 4.42 (.005) a<d, c<d
Maternal identity 5.10±0.69 5.09±0.74 4.72±0.69 5.12±0.72 1.33 (.045) a>c


This article is a condensed form of the first author's master's thesis form mokpo National University.

Summary Statement

▪ What is already known about this topic?
Higher levels of stress of pregnant women were related to less optimal maternal-fetal quality of attachment, more negative attitudes towards motherhood and the self as mother.
▪ What this paper adds?
This review aims to consider evidence for the impact of stress coping styles on the fetal attachment to the mother, and the maternal identity of married immigrant pregnant women.
▪ Implications for practice, education and/or policy
There were a significantly the differences in maternal-fetal attachment and maternal identity based on stress coping types. The findings suggest the necessity of controlling the unfavorable stress coping types in preparing the stress-managing nursing intervention plan for married immigrant pregnant women.


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