Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.19(4) > 1089453

Kim and Jeong: Development of a Scale to Assess Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaptation



The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to assess immigrant women's needs for pregnancy and postpartum adaptation and to test the reliability and validity of the scale.


To construct scale items, critical issues and difficulties associated with pregnancy and postpartum adaptation of immigrant women were identified and categorized through a literature review. Fifty-two scale items were constructed, and data for validity and reliability testing was collected with a questionnaire survey from 367 immigrant women. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and reliability coefficients.


The final measurement scale to assess immigrant women's pregnancy and postpartum adaptation consisted of 48 items and 7 factors (adaptation to daily activity during pregnancy, cross-cultural understanding and personal respect, understanding of the process of pregnancy and delivery, baby rearing and family support, physical and emotional adaptation after childbirth, nutrition during pregnancy, and sexual life adaptation). The seven factors accounted for 64.26% of the variance, and Cronbach's α was .96.


The scale developed by this study is a reliable and valid instrument and can be used to assess needs of pregnancy and postpartum adaptation and can be utilized in providing nursing interventions for immigrant women.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Characteristics of Subjects (N=367)

Multiple response.

Table 2
Eigenvalue, Explained Variance, Cumulative Variance, KMO, Bartlett's Test of Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaption
Table 3
Factor Loading of Each Item of Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaptation
Table 4
Internal Reliability of Evaluated Scale


This research was supported by Hallym University Research Fund (HRF-201306-002).


1. Baik SH, Jeong GH, Kim KW. A survey on health care needs during pregnancy, childbirth, and childbearing of Vietnamese immigrant women in South Korea. Int J Digit Content Tech Appl. 2013; 7:303–311.
2. Choi EY, Lee EH, Choi JS, Choi SH. A comparative study on the postpartum depression of Vietnamese marriage immigrant women and Korean women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2011; 17:39–51.
3. Chung CS. Pregnancy, delivery and cultural integration of international marriage migrant women. Busan: Inje University;2010. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
4. Chung JK, Yang KM. Recent developments in acculturation theories. Korean J Psychol Gen. 2004; 23:101–136.
5. Han GS. Family life and cultural encounter of foreign wives in rural area. Korean Cult Anthropol. 2006; 39:195–219.
6. Hyun KJ, Kim YS. Development of a Korean life adaptation measure for female marriage immigrants. Health Soc Welf Rev. 2011; 31:63–100.
7. Jang IS, Hwang NM, Yoon MS, Park S. Current status and factors affecting prenatal care by married immigrant women. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2010; 16:326–335.
8. Jeon MS, Kang KJ, Park SH. A study on preg nancy, delivery, and infant rearing knowledge and educational need of marriage immigrant women. J Agric Med Community Health. 2011; 36:179–190.
9. Jeong GH, Kim KW, Bae KE. Depression and family function of immigrant women in Korea. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2012; 16:157–169.
10. Jeong GH, Koh HJ, Kim KS, Kim SH, Kim JH, Park HS, et al. A survey on health management of during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum of immigrant women in a multi-cultural family. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009; 15:261–269.
11. Kim EH, Lee EJ, Kim MJ, Park DY, Lee SH. Effects of an educational program of pregnancy and delivery on pregnancy related knowledge, newborn care knowledge, and postpartum care self-efficancy of marriage immigrant women. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2010; 40:78–87.
12. Kim HR, Hwang NM, Chang IS, Yoon KJ, Kang BJ. The reproductive health and policy subject in the international foreign wives. Seoul: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs;2008.
13. Kim KW. Pregnancy and childbirth experiences of immigrant women in a multi- cultural family. J Korean Soc Matern Child Health. 2010; 14:133–144.
14. Kim SH, Ahn OH, Choi HJ, Park YS, Jun MS. Understanding & health for multi-culture. Seoul: Jeongdam Media;2012.
15. Kim TI, Kwon YJ, Kim MJ. Phenomenological study on mothering experiences of the married immigrant women in urban areas. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2012; 18:85–97.
16. Lee EH, So AY, Lee KH, Kim EY, Choi EH. Services improvement for multicultural family supportsfocused on health promotion service strategies for marriage immigrants women's family. Chuncheon: Research Institute for Gangwon;2012.
17. Lee EO, Im NY, Park HA, Lee IS, Kim CI, Bae JH, et al. Nursing search and statistic analysis. Seoul: Soomoonsa;2009.
18. Lee ML. A study on the relationship between pregnant women's health beliefs and performance of antenatal care. Seoul: Ewha Womans University;1984. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
19. Lee SM. The fundamentals of factor analysis. Paju: Kyoyookbook;2000.
20. Lim HS. The experience of transition in pregnancy and childbirth among the married immigrant women in Korea. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2011; 17:243–255.
21. Ministry of Security and Public Administration. The number of foreign residents in each local government. Seoul: Ministry of Security and Public Administration;2012.
22. Park MS, Kim HW. A study on primigravida's antenatal self-care behavior and maternal knowledge. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2000; 6:153–165.
23. Ricci SS. Essential of maternity, newborn, & women's health nursing. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, NY: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2009.
24. Roy SC. Introduction to nursing: An adaptation model. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc;1984.
25. Serçekuş P, Mete S. Effects of antenatal education on maternal prenatal and postpartum adaptation. J Adv Nurs. 2010; 66:999–1010.
26. Shin HS, Kim SH, Kwon SH. Effects of Education on Primiparas' Postpartial care. Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2000; 6:34–45.
27. Sohn SY. Korean family and gender - reconstruction politics and gender order of feminism - Ansan Research 320. Seoul: Gipmoondang;2011.
28. Statistics of Immigrant Population Status in 2010. Statistics Korea;2011. Retrieved March 12, 2013. from
29. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multi-variate statistics. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Harper Collins;1996.
30. Waltz CF, Bausell RB. Nursing research: Design, statistics, and computer analysis. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company;1981.
Similar articles