Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.19(4) > 1089453

Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2013 Dec;19(4):242-253. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2013.
© 2013 Korean Society of Women Health Nursing
Development of a Scale to Assess Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaptation
Kyung Won Kim,1 and Geum Hee Jeong2
1Department of Nursing, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.
2Division of Nursing, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.

Corresponding author: Jeong, Geum Hee. Division of Nursing Science, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon 200-702, Korea. Tel: +82-33-248-2713, Fax: +82-33-248-2733, Email:
Received September 22, 2013; Revised October 31, 2013; Accepted November 14, 2013.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to assess immigrant women's needs for pregnancy and postpartum adaptation and to test the reliability and validity of the scale.


To construct scale items, critical issues and difficulties associated with pregnancy and postpartum adaptation of immigrant women were identified and categorized through a literature review. Fifty-two scale items were constructed, and data for validity and reliability testing was collected with a questionnaire survey from 367 immigrant women. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and reliability coefficients.


The final measurement scale to assess immigrant women's pregnancy and postpartum adaptation consisted of 48 items and 7 factors (adaptation to daily activity during pregnancy, cross-cultural understanding and personal respect, understanding of the process of pregnancy and delivery, baby rearing and family support, physical and emotional adaptation after childbirth, nutrition during pregnancy, and sexual life adaptation). The seven factors accounted for 64.26% of the variance, and Cronbach's α was .96.


The scale developed by this study is a reliable and valid instrument and can be used to assess needs of pregnancy and postpartum adaptation and can be utilized in providing nursing interventions for immigrant women.

Keywords: Pregnancy; Postpartum period; Emigrants and immigrants; Needs assessment; Adaptation


Table 1
Characteristics of Subjects (N=367)
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Table 2
Eigenvalue, Explained Variance, Cumulative Variance, KMO, Bartlett's Test of Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaption
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Table 3
Factor Loading of Each Item of Immigrant Women's Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaptation
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Table 4
Internal Reliability of Evaluated Scale
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This research was supported by Hallym University Research Fund (HRF-201306-002).

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