Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.18(4) > 1089427

Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2012 Dec;18(4):248-256. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2012.
© 2012 Korean Society of Women Health Nursing
An Effect of Optimism, Self-esteem and Depression on Laughter Therapy of Menopausal Women
Mi Youn Cha, Yeon Kyung Na and Hae Sook Hong
College of Nursing, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Corresponding author: Hong, Hae Sook. College of Nursing, Kyungpook National University, 101 Dongin-dong 2-ga, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-422, Korea. Tel: +82-53-420-4932, Fax: +82-53-421-2758, Email:
Received July 18, 2012; Revised September 20, 2012; Accepted October 17, 2012.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study examines the difference of optimism, self-esteem and depression to verify an effect of laughter therapy program for menopausal women.


A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group pre / post-test design was used. The participants (n=57) were 28 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group. The data were collected in December of 2011. The experimental group participated in laughter therapy for 30 min per session, five times a week for the period of 2 weeks. The questionnaires were used to measure pre / post-test optimism, self-esteem, and depression of menopausal women.


The results showed that laughter therapy was effective in increasing optimism (p=.020) and self-esteem (p<.001). And the depression of menopausal women decreased (p=.003).


The result of the study indicates that laughter therapy for menopausal women may be an effective nursing intervention to improve optimism, self-esteem and depression of menopausal women.

Keywords: Laughter therapy; Optimism; Self-esteem; Depression; Menopause


Table 1
Laughter Therapy Program Contents
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Table 2
Homogeneity Test of General Characteristics (N=57)
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Table 3
Pretest Scores for the Homogeneity (N=57)
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Table 4
Pre-score, Education, and Personality based Analysis of Covariance as Covariates (N=57)
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Summary Statement

▪ What is already known about this topic?

A laughter therapy program can improve pleasant thinking and feeling of people, which helps to promote their good health.

▪ What this paper adds?

A laughter therapy program for menopausal women can increase self-esteem and optimism that were declined by emotional and psychological problems after menopause, which makes efforts to decrease depression.

▪ Implications for practice, education and/or policy?

There needs society support to use a laughter therapy program for controlling spiritual and psychological problems of menopausal women.

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