Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.18(4) > 1089427

Cha, Na, and Hong: An Effect of Optimism, Self-esteem and Depression on Laughter Therapy of Menopausal Women



This study examines the difference of optimism, self-esteem and depression to verify an effect of laughter therapy program for menopausal women.


A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group pre / post-test design was used. The participants (n=57) were 28 in the experimental group and 29 in the control group. The data were collected in December of 2011. The experimental group participated in laughter therapy for 30 min per session, five times a week for the period of 2 weeks. The questionnaires were used to measure pre / post-test optimism, self-esteem, and depression of menopausal women.


The results showed that laughter therapy was effective in increasing optimism (p=.020) and self-esteem (p<.001). And the depression of menopausal women decreased (p=.003).


The result of the study indicates that laughter therapy for menopausal women may be an effective nursing intervention to improve optimism, self-esteem and depression of menopausal women.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Laughter Therapy Program Contents
Table 2
Homogeneity Test of General Characteristics (N=57)
Table 3
Pretest Scores for the Homogeneity (N=57)

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Table 4
Pre-score, Education, and Personality based Analysis of Covariance as Covariates (N=57)

Summary Statement

▪ What is already known about this topic?
A laughter therapy program can improve pleasant thinking and feeling of people, which helps to promote their good health.
▪ What this paper adds?
A laughter therapy program for menopausal women can increase self-esteem and optimism that were declined by emotional and psychological problems after menopause, which makes efforts to decrease depression.
▪ Implications for practice, education and/or policy?
There needs society support to use a laughter therapy program for controlling spiritual and psychological problems of menopausal women.


1. Ahn GYR. Sex difference in buffering effect of social support for depression related to stress. 1988. Seoul: Graduate School of Korea University;Dissertation of Master's Degree.
2. Bae KE. Instrument development for adaptation of women in the menopause period. 2006. Seoul: The University of Korea;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
3. Beth DS, Robert GR. Basic & clinical biostatistics. 1994. 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall International Inc.
4. Cronch MA. Enhancement of self-esteem through their life span. Fam Community Health. 1983. 6(2):11–28.
[Google Scholar]
5. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 1988. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
6. Cho EA, Oh HE. Effects of laughter therapy on depression, quality of life, resilience and immune responses in breast cancer survivors. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2011. 41(3):285–293.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
7. Fry W, Savin W. Mirthful Laughter and blood pressure Humor. Int J Humor Res. 1988. 1:49–62.
[Google Scholar]
8. Go HJ. The effects of laughter therapy on depression and cognition in a community for the aged. 2008. Daegu: Kyungpook National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
9. Jeon BJ. Self-esteem: A test of its measurability. Yonsei Nonchong. 1974. 11(1):107–130.
[Google Scholar]
10. Jung JS. The effect of laughter therapy on sleep and self esteem in senior home. 2011. Seoul: Myongji University;Unpublished master's thesis.
11. Kim CK. A qualitative study on depression experiences of middle aged depressed women. Korean J Couns. 2010. 11(4):1783–1806.
[Google Scholar]
12. Kim DH. The Effects of laughter therapy on the depression, self-esteem and stress of female cancer patients. 2011. Daegu: Kyungpook National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
13. Kim OS. YJ Sakano . Cognitive behavioral therapy. 2005. Hana Medical Publishers;Original work published 1988.
14. Kim YS. Influence of laughter on stress response in the elderly. 2006. Busan: Pusan University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
15. Kim HS, Lee EJ. A study on the relation of laughter index, depression and anxiety in middle-aged women. Korean J Rehabil Nurs. 2006. 9(2):126–133.
[Google Scholar]
16. Kim Rachelle L. The effects of humor on cardiopulmonary functioning, psychological well-being and Health status among older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2002. USA: Ohio State University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
17. Kim SHS. The effectiveness of a laughter therapy group counseling program for anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem in mothers. Korean J Child Stud. 2010. 31(2):197–207.
[Google Scholar]
18. Kim JH, Choi HL, Lee CY. A study on the development and effects of recreation program for decrease of depression and stress, improving self-esteem of middle aged women. J Sport Leis Stud. 2011. 43:907–916.
[Google Scholar]
19. Korea Laughter Clinic Academy. 2007.
20. Korea National Statistcal Office. View statistics of women's lives: Average life. 2010.
21. Lee MS. Laughter, Power to heal me. 2008. Seoul: Random House.
22. Lee YS, Go MS, Kim HJ, Sim MJ, Oh HM, Lee ES. Women's Health Nursing. 2001. Seoul: hyeonmunsa.
23. Matsuzaki T, Nakajima A, Ishigami S, Tanno M, Yoshino S. Mirthful laughter differentially affects serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels depending on the level of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005. 45:182–186. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kei081.
[CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
24. Park HM, Ahn MO, Choi H, Hur M. Climacteric women's attitude toward management of menopause in Korea. J Korean Soc Menopause. 2004. 10(2):121–127.
[Google Scholar]
25. Park HS. Study on Health promoting lifestyle of college students. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 1997. 6(1):91–103.
[Google Scholar]
26. Park HS. A study on the relationship between depression, health promoting behavior, self-esteem, and optimism in middle-age women. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2002. 11:352–362.
[Google Scholar]
27. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychological Meas. 1977. 1:385–401.
[Google Scholar]
28. Rosenberg M. Society and the adolescent self-image. 1965. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
29. Ryu CH. A study on effectiveness comparison between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Laughter Therapy (LT) for juvenile offenders. 2009. Suwon: Kyonggi University;Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
30. Scheier MF, Carver CS, Bridge MW. Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism(and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the Life Orientation Test. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994. 67:1063–1078.
[Google Scholar]
31. Seligman MEP. JS Yu . Joy of psychology. 2007. Phoenix Academy;Original work published 2007.
32. Yoon J. The Effect of Optimism on Depression and Well-being: Social Support and Coping as a Mediating variable. 2007. Seoul: Ajou University;Unpublished master's thesis.
Similar articles