Journal List > Asian Oncol Nurs > v.16(2) > 1081890

Yun, Kim, Kim, and Noh: The Effects of a Standardized Preoperative Education Program on Stomach Cancer Patients undergoing Gastrectomy



The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a standardized preoperative education program on self-care knowledge, performance, satisfaction, and physical recovery in the stomach cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.


A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was utilized and 63 participants who underwent gastrectomy (31 for experimental group, 32 for control group) were recruited at a university hospital from May to August 2015.


There were significant differences between the groups in self-care knowledge (F=17.63, p<.001), performance (F=-9.25, p<.001) and satisfaction (F=-6.91, p<.001). Although the pain levels (F=974.57, p<.001) showed significant differences in each group and 3 time intervals (F=18.26, p<.001), there was no interaction of group and time (F=0.09, p=.917). The highest body temperature at 48 hours after surgery (F=1.32, p=.192), as well as presence of atelectasis (F=2.23, p=.213) indicating a chance of pulmonary complications, and the time of first gas pass (F=-1.05, p=.299), presence of paralytic ileus (F=0.13, p=.719) were not significantly differ.


The preoperative education program developed in this study can be utilized as a part of nursing interventions and be beneficial to patients who undergo stomach cancer surgery for their thorough understanding.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Demographic and Disease-related Characteristics (N=63)

Characteristics Categories Cont. (n=32) Exp. (n=31) χ2 or t p
n (%) or M±SD n (%) or M±SD
Age (year) 56.4±11.4 59.3±9.9 0.75 .390
Gender Male 23 (71.9) 20 (64.5) 0.39 .595*
Female 9 (28.1) 11 (35.5)
Education level ≤High school 21 (65.6) 19 (61.3) 0.13 .721*
≥College 11 (34.4) 12 (38.7)
ASA score 1.97±0.47 1.77±0.56 5.01 .029
History of abdominal surgery Yes 11 (34.4) 6 (19.4) 1.80 .257*
No 21 (65.6) 25 (80.6)
Name of operation RSTG Bl 10 (31.3) 11 (35.5) 3.40 .603*
RSTG Bll 0 (0.0) 1 (3.2)
RSTG RY 7 (21.9) 5 (16.1)
RTG 13 (40.6) 14 (45.2)
Palliative GJ 2 (6.2) 0 (0.0)
Self-care knowledge Pretest 8.56±2.71 9.48±2.23 2.77 .101

*Chi-square test; Cont.= Control group; Exp.= Experimental group; ASA score= American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical status classification score; RSTG Bl= Radical subtotal gastrectomy with billoth l; RSTG Bll= Radical subtotal gastrectomy with billoth ll; RSTG RY= Radical subtotal gastrectomy with roux-en Y Gastrojejunostomy; RTG= Radical total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy; Palliative GJ= Palliative gastrojejunostomy.

Table 2

Comparison of Self-care Knowledge, Self-care Performance, Patient Satisfaction between Control Group and Experi-mental Group (N=63)

Variables Categories Cont. (n=32) Exp. (n=31) F or t p
Self-care knowledge Pretest 8.56±2.71 9.48±2.23 Group 24.15* <.001
Posttest 11.25±1.97 14.68±0.54 Time 16.12* <.001
Group*Time 17.63* <.001
Self-care performance Posttest 3.18±0.48 3.95±0.07 -9.25 <.001
Patient satisfaction Posttest 3.28±0.52 3.96±0.18 -6.91 <.001

*ANCOVA with ASA score as a covariate; Cont.= Control group; Exp.= Experimental group.

Table 3

Comparison of Postoperative Physical Recovery between Control Group and Experimental Group (N=63)

Variables Cont. (n=32) Exp. (n=31) χ2 or t or F p
n (%) or M±SD n (%) or M±SD
Pain levels (VAS sore) 24 hr 4.63±1.58 4.42±1.43 Group 974.57* <.001
48 hr 4.06±1.68 3.74±1.32 Time 18.26* <.001
72 hr 3.16±1.44 3.03±1.25 Group*Time 0.09* .917
Temperature (℃) 38.14±0.41 38±0.42 1.32 .192
 Atelectasis Yes 9 (28.1) 4 (12.9) 2.23 .213
No 23 (71.9) 27 (87.1) 1.32 .192
38.14±0.41 38±0.42 2.23 .213
9 (28.1) 4 (12.9)
23 (71.9) 27 (87.1)
Expelling of gas (hr) 86.28±14.4 91.06±21.27 -1.05 .299
 Ileus Yes 12 (48.0) 13 (47.4) 0.13 .719
No 20 (52.0) 18 (52.6) -1.05 .299
86.28±14.4 91.06±21.27 0.13 .719
12 (48.0) 13 (47.4)
20 (52.0) 18 (52.6)

*RepeatedmeasureANOVA;Two sample t-test; Chi-square test; Cont.= Control group; Exp.= Experimental group.


This article is a condensed form of the first author's master's thesis from Yonsei University.


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