Journal List > Asian Oncol Nurs > v.16(2) > 1081889

Kim and Park: The Effect of A Salivation Stimulation Method on Xerostomia in Colon Cancer Patients after Surgery

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to develop a salivation stimulation method and to verify the effect of a salivation stimulation method on xerostomia in colon cancer patients after surgery.

Methods

This study targeted 21 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group, who were diagnosed with colon cancer and underwent surgery at A university hospital. The salivation stimulation method consists of tongue movement for stimulating minor salivary glands in mouth and a parotid gland and submandibular gland massage with hands. The method was applied four times a day for 2 days the next day after surgery.

Results

On the first postoperative day, the experimental group showed a significantly larger amount of salivation than the control group (p=.010). On the second postoperative day, the experimental group showed a significantly larger amount of salivation than the control group (p<.001). On the first postoperative day, the subjective xerostomia scores in the experimental group and control group were not statistically significant (p=.165). On the second postoperative day, the experimental group showed a significantly lower subjective xerostomia score than the control group (p=.001).

Conclusion

It is considered that providing cancer patients with this salivation stimulation method after surgery would reduce discomfort caused by xerostomia.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

A salivation stimulation method protocol provided to patients.

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Table 1

Homogeneity Test of Demographic Characteristics and Oral-related Characteristics and Operational-related Characteristics (N=43)

aon-16-75-i001
Variables Categories Exp. (n=21) Cont. (n=22) χ2 or t p
n (%) or M±SD n (%) or M±SD
Gender Male 11 (25.6) 11 (25.6) 0.02 .876
Female 10 (23.3) 11 (25.6)
Age (year) 63.2±13.67 66.3±11.69 -0.78 .349
Smoking Yes 2 (4.7) 4 (9.3) 0.67 .664
No 19 (44.2) 18 (41.9)
Drinking Yes 2 (4.7) 4 (9.3) 0.67 .664
No 19 (44.2) 18 (41.9)
Denture Yes 9 (20.9) 6 (14.0) 1.14 .284
No 12 (27.9) 16 (37.2)
Dry mouth Yes 2 (4.7) 5 (11.6) 1.37 .412
No 19 (44.2) 17 (39.5)
Diagnosis Ascending colon ca 7 (16.3) 7 (16.3) 4.57 .333
Descending colon ca 0 (0.0) 2 (4.7)
Sigmoid colon ca 9 (20.9) 6 (14.0)
Rectal ca 5 (11.6) 5 (11.6)
Etc. 0 (0.0) 2 (4.7)
Type of surgery Rt hemicolectomy 7 (16.3) 8 (18.6) 2.77 .597
Lt hemicolectomy 0 (0.0) 2 (4.7)
Anterior resection 9 (20.9) 7 (16.3)
AR + ileostomy 1 (2.3) 2 (4.7)
Ileostomy repair 4 (9.3) 3 (7.0)
Fasting time Lesser than 72hr 18 (41.9) 20 (46.5) 0.28 .664
More than 72hr 3 (7.0) 2 (4.7)
Surgical time 178.81±82.30 187.05±79.23 -0.33 .980
Preoperative medication Glycopyrrolate 11 (25.6) 11 (25.6) 1.31 .519
Glycopyrrolate, Atropin 3 (7.0) 6 (14.0)
Glycopyrrolate, Midazolam 7 (16.3) 5 (11.6)
Anesthetics Sevoflurane 20 (46.5) 18 (41.9) 1.88 .345
Desflurane 1 (2.3) 4 (9.3)
Pain control PCA, Pethidine 13 (30.2) 15 (34.9) 1.12 .571
PCA, Pethidine, Ketolorac 7 (16.3) 7 (16.3)
PCA, Pethidine, Fentanyl 1 (2.3) 0 (0.0)

Rt= right; Lt= left; AR= Anterior resection; hrs= hours; PCA= patient controlled analgesia; Exp= experimental; Cont= control; ca= cancer; Fisher's exact test;

Table 2

Homogeneity Test for Pre-operative Dependent Variables of between Two Groups (N=43)

aon-16-75-i002
Variables Exp. (n=21) Cont. (n=22) t p
M±SD M±SD
Usual objective salivation 42.71±13.43 37.91±12.17 1.23 .226
Usual subjective dry mouth 0.33±0.73 0.36±0.79 -0.13 .897

Exp= Experimental group; Cont= Control group.

Table 3

Mean difference in Post-operative Objective and Subjective Xerostomia between Two Groups (N=43)

aon-16-75-i003
Variables Time Exp. (n=21) Cont. (n=22) t p Cohen's d
M±SD M±SD
Objective salivation Post 1 20.38±11.71 12.27±7.67 2.69 .010 0.81
Post 2 28.43±11.01 16.41±8.13 4.08 <.001 1.24
Subjective dry mouth Post 1 4.00±0.77 4.41±1.09 -1.41 .165 0.43
Post 2 2.71±0.84 3.55±0.73 -3.43 .001 1.05

Exp= Experimental; Cont= Control; Post 1= the first postoperative day; Post 2= the second postoperative day; Cohen's d= effect size.

Notes

This article is based on a part of the first author's master's thesis from Keimyung University.

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