Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(6) > 1081469

Kim, Kim, and Ly: Vitamin D intake, serum 25OHD, and bone mineral density of Korean adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2011)



The purpose of this study was to estimate dietary intake of vitamin D and the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adults using the 2011 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


Daily intake of vitamin D and ratio of subjects that consumed less vitamin D than adequate intake (AI) were estimated in 4,879 Korean adults. The relationship between daily intake of vitamin D and serum 25OHD and BMD were analyzed.


Average daily intakes of vitamin D were 3.84 ± 0.23 µg/day for men and 2.22 ± 0.11 µg/day for women. Approximately 72~97% of men and 80~99% of women consumed less than the AI of vitamin D for Koreans. Serum 25OHD concentration increased with age, and the ratios of serum vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) were 47.8~81.1% for men and 59.4~92.8% for women. Average intake of vitamin D was higher in subjects aged < 50 yr than in those ≥ 50 yr, but lower in serum 25OHD concentration. In subjects aged < 50 yr, serum 25OHD was higher in subjects that consumed 10 µg/day of vitamin D than in those that consumed less than 5 µg/day. In female subjects aged ≥ 50 yr, average intake of vitamin D was associated with higher bone mineral density.


It was found that dietary intake of vitamin D could increase serum 25OHD concentration in young adults and bone mineral density in old women. Therefore, nutrition policies for enriched foods with vitamin D and nutrition education to consume more vitamin D-rich foods are needed to ameliorate vitamin D status of the Korean population. Adequate intake for Korean population aged < 50 yr might be adjusted upwardly up to 10 µg/day.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Flowchart of subject inclusion and exclusion in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011

Fig. 2

Sun exposure-adjusted serum 25OHD concentrations by vitamin D intake level. Serum 25OHD concentrations is expressed as mean ± SE. Results from the complex samples general linear model. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01

Fig. 3

Serum 25(OH)D concentration-adjusted bone mineral density by vitamin D intake level in women over 50 yr. Bone mineral density is expressed as mean ± SE. WTBMD: wholebody total bone mineral density, THBMD: total hip bone mineral density, FNBMD: femur neck bone mi neral density, LSBMD: lumbar spine bone mineral density. Results from the complex samples general linear model. *p < 0.05

Table 1

Characteristics of participants


1) All variables are expressed as number (percentage). 2) Whether the person took dietary supplement at least once per week in a month. 3) ***chi-square test p-value < 0.001 for differences between men and women

Table 2

Mean energy and vitamin D intakes and mean serum 25OHD concentration of Koreans, in 2011, by age and gender


1) Data are expressed as mean ± SEs. 2) Cut-off point (deficiency level) for serum 25OHD concentration was 20 ng/mL. 3) F-value was based on the results from the complex samples general linear model; comparison among age groups.

***p < 0.001

Table 3

Regression coefficient (95% CI) for association between serum vitamin D concentration and variables according to the sex


P-value was based on the results from the complex samples general linear model.

Table 4

Contribution of vitamin D-rich food groups towards the daily mean intake of vitamin D in Korean adults


1) Data are shown as mean ± SEs, and adjusted for energy intake. 2) Contribution is also expressed as percentage (%). 3) F-value was based on the results from the complex samples general linear model.

*p < 0.05

Table 5

Bone mineral density at the total hip, femur neck, lumbar spine and wholebody of subject


1) Data are shown as mean ± SE (g/cm2). 2) WTBMD: wholebody total bone mineral density 3) THBMD: total hip bone mineral density 4) FNBMD: femur neck bone mineral density 5) LSBMD: lumbar spine bone mineral density 6) F-value was based on the results from the complex samples general linear model.

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001


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