Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(6) > 1081469

J Nutr Health. 2016 Dec;49(6):437-446. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2016.
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Vitamin D intake, serum 25OHD, and bone mineral density of Korean adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2011)
Mi-Yeon Kim,1 Mi-Ja Kim,2 and Sun Yung Ly1
1Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 35408, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +28-42-821-6838, Email:
Received September 28, 2016; Revised November 09, 2016; Accepted November 15, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study was to estimate dietary intake of vitamin D and the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean adults using the 2011 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.


Daily intake of vitamin D and ratio of subjects that consumed less vitamin D than adequate intake (AI) were estimated in 4,879 Korean adults. The relationship between daily intake of vitamin D and serum 25OHD and BMD were analyzed.


Average daily intakes of vitamin D were 3.84 ± 0.23 µg/day for men and 2.22 ± 0.11 µg/day for women. Approximately 72~97% of men and 80~99% of women consumed less than the AI of vitamin D for Koreans. Serum 25OHD concentration increased with age, and the ratios of serum vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/mL) were 47.8~81.1% for men and 59.4~92.8% for women. Average intake of vitamin D was higher in subjects aged < 50 yr than in those ≥ 50 yr, but lower in serum 25OHD concentration. In subjects aged < 50 yr, serum 25OHD was higher in subjects that consumed 10 µg/day of vitamin D than in those that consumed less than 5 µg/day. In female subjects aged ≥ 50 yr, average intake of vitamin D was associated with higher bone mineral density.


It was found that dietary intake of vitamin D could increase serum 25OHD concentration in young adults and bone mineral density in old women. Therefore, nutrition policies for enriched foods with vitamin D and nutrition education to consume more vitamin D-rich foods are needed to ameliorate vitamin D status of the Korean population. Adequate intake for Korean population aged < 50 yr might be adjusted upwardly up to 10 µg/day.

Keywords: dietary intake of vitamin D; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; bone mineral density; Korean adults


Fig. 1
Flowchart of subject inclusion and exclusion in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011
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Fig. 2
Sun exposure-adjusted serum 25OHD concentrations by vitamin D intake level. Serum 25OHD concentrations is expressed as mean ± SE. Results from the complex samples general linear model. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
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Fig. 3
Serum 25(OH)D concentration-adjusted bone mineral density by vitamin D intake level in women over 50 yr. Bone mineral density is expressed as mean ± SE. WTBMD: wholebody total bone mineral density, THBMD: total hip bone mineral density, FNBMD: femur neck bone mi neral density, LSBMD: lumbar spine bone mineral density. Results from the complex samples general linear model. *p < 0.05
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Table 1
Characteristics of participants
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Table 2
Mean energy and vitamin D intakes and mean serum 25OHD concentration of Koreans, in 2011, by age and gender
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Table 3
Regression coefficient (95% CI) for association between serum vitamin D concentration and variables according to the sex
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Table 4
Contribution of vitamin D-rich food groups towards the daily mean intake of vitamin D in Korean adults
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Table 5
Bone mineral density at the total hip, femur neck, lumbar spine and wholebody of subject
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