Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(6) > 1081466

J Nutr Health. 2016 Dec;49(6):420-428. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2016.49.6.420
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Protective effects of Cirsium setidens ethanolic extracts against alcoholic fatty liver injury in rats
Eun-Hye Kim and Jayong Chung
Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-961-0977, Email: jchung@khu.ac.kr
Received October 18, 2016; Revised November 11, 2016; Accepted November 30, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we investigated the effects of Cirsium setidens ethanolic extract (CS) on the development of alcoholic fatty liver and associated injury.

Methods

Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed either Lieber-DeCarli control (C) or ethanol (35.5% of total calories) liquid diet with 0 (E), 100 mg/kgBW CS (E+LCS), or 500 mg/kgBW CS (E+HCS) for 8 weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as TG and cholesterol concentrations in the serum and liver tissues were measured by colorimetric assays. Liver histopathology was examined by Hematoxylin-eosin staining of the fixed liver tissues. Protein levels of phosphorylated-AMP activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), phosphorylated-acetyl CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), phosphorylated-nuclear factor kappa B (p-NFκB), and TNFα were measured by Western blot analyses.

Results

Both doses of CS markedly suppressed alcohol-induced lipid droplets accumulation in the liver tissues and significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increases in activities of serum ALT and serum AST. Similarly, CS significantly reduced hepatic and serum TG concentrations. Compared to groups fed alcohol only, CS supplementation strongly increased hepatic levels of p-AMPK and p-ACC. Further, CS significantly inhibited alcohol-induced phosphorylation of NFκB, which was associated with reduced hepatic protein levels of TNFα.

Conclusion

Our data demonstrated that CS has a protective effect against alcoholic liver injury, which was associated with activation of AMPK and inhibition of NFκB.

Keywords: alcoholic liver disease; Cirsium setidens; AMP-activated protein kinase; nuclear factor kappa B

Figures


Fig. 1
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on body weight changes in ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS
Click for larger image


Fig. 2
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on the development of hepatic steatosis in ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS (upper) Representative hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections of liver tissue are shown at 200×. (lower) The degree of hepatic steatosis was graded 1 to 4 based on the average percent of fat-accumulated hepatocytes per field at 100X magnification (grading 1 = < 6%, 2 = 6~33%, 3 = 33~66%, 4 = > 66%). Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image


Fig. 3
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on serum ALT and serum AST activities in ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS. Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image


Fig. 4
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on hepatic and serum TG and cholesterol concentrations in ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS. Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image


Fig. 5
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on the protein levels of phosphorylated-AMPK and phosphorylated-ACC in the liver tissue of ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS. Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image


Fig. 6
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on the mRNA levels of SREBP1, FAD, and SCD1 in the liver tissue of ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS. Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image


Fig. 7
Effects of Cirsium setidens ethanol extract (CS) on the protein levels of phosphorylated-NFκB and TNFα in the liver tissue of ethanol-fed rats. C: control diet, E: ethanol diet, E+LCS: ethanol diet with 100 mg/kg BW CS, and E+HCS: ethanol diet with 500 mg/kg BW CS. Data are the means ± SE (n = 7). Different letter indicate significant difference (p < 0.05).
Click for larger image

Notes

This work was supported by grants from the Basic Science Research Program of the Korean National Research Foundation (2013R1A1A2007613).

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