Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(4) > 1081448

J Nutr Health. 2016 Aug;49(4):258-268. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2016.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2016.49.4.258
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Estimated dietary intake of vitamin A in Korean adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007~2012
Seong-Ah Kim,1 Shinyoung Jun,1 and Hyojee Joung1,2
1Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
2Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2781, Email: hjjoung@snu.ac.kr
Received June 14, 2016; Revised July 18, 2016; Accepted July 28, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to estimate dietary vitamin A intake and examine major food sources of vitamin A in Korean adults.

Methods

Using data from the 2007~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 33,069 subjects over 19-years-old were included in this study. We estimated individual daily intakes of retinol, carotenoids such as α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and vitamin A by linking food consumption data with the vitamin A database of commonly consumed foods. We compared individual vitamin A intakes with the reference value of Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans.

Results

Average dietary vitamin A intakes of study subjects were 864.3 µg retinol equivalent/day (495.7 µg retinol activity equivalent/day) in men and 715.0 µg retinol equivalent/day (403.6 µg retinol activity equivalent/day) in women. Exactly 42.9% and 70.6% of total subjects consumed less vitamin A than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) based on retinol equivalent and retinol activity equivalent, respectively. The major food sources of vitamin A were Korean radish leaves, carrot, red pepper, and laver, and the top 20 foods provided about 80% of total vitamin A intake.

Conclusion

This study provides basic data for estimation of vitamin A intake in Korean adults. Further research will be needed to analyze the association of insufficient or excess intakes of vitamin A and health problems in the Korean population.

Keywords: vitamin A; retinol equivalent; retinol activity equivalent; KNHANES

Tables


Table 1
The literature sources and coverage of retinol and carotenoids database
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Table 2
Daily dietary vitamin A intakes of Korean adults aged ≥ 19y by socio-demographic factors from 24-h DR in the KNHANES 2007~2012
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Table 3
Percentages of Korean adults aged ≥ 19y consuming vitamin A compared with the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (KDRIs)
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Table 4
Contribution of individual food groups to vitamin A intake in Korean adults aged ≥ 19 y from 24-h DR in the KNHANES 2007~2012
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Table 5
Major dietary sources of vitamin A consumed by Korean adults aged ≥ 19 y from 24-h DR in the KNHANES 2007~2012
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Notes

This work is carried out with the support of 'Research Program for Agricultural Science and Technology Development', National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration (Project No. PJ011637022016).

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