Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(4) > 1081443

Lee, Son, Jang, and Park: Coffee and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Purpose

Coffee is the most frequently consumed food item in South Korea after rice and cabbage. Coffee contains various substances, including caffeine, cafestol, kahweol, chlorogenic acid, and many other known and unknown ingredients with some health benefits. Especially, cumulative evidence has shown that regular coffee use is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, although limited and inconsistent data are available regarding metabolic syndrome.

Methods

This study reviewed all available scientific and epidemiologic evidence on coffee consumption, metabolic syndrome, and the association between them. Most epidemiologic research regarding this association was of a cross-sectional design, and a few case-control and cohort studies were available. We conducted meta-analysis with 11 observational studies investigated in Europe, America, and Asia. Summary odds ratios (OR) were calculated using a random-effects model.

Results

The overall OR of metabolic syndrome was 0.90 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.81-0.99) for the highest category of coffee intake compared with the lowest intake category. These associations were stronger in populations of US and Europe (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.94), whereas no association was observed in the Asian population (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.81-1.23).

Conclusion

The review results indicate that frequent coffee consumption may be beneficial to metabolic syndrome, but the association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome may differ by nations or continents.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Flow diagram of study selection for meta-analysis

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Fig. 2

Forest plot of summary odds ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest versus lowest categories of coffee consumption

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Fig. 3

Influence analysis of coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome among all selected studies

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Fig. 4

Funnel plot testing for publication bias

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Table 1

Criteria of metabolic syndrome by various organizations781932

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NCEP ATP III, national cholesterol education program-third adult treatment panel; IDF, international diabetes federation; AHA, American heart association; NHLBI, national heart lung and blood institute; JASSO, Japan society for the study of obesity; WC, waist circumference; TG, triglycerides

1) WC cut points for Asian population by WHO (Western Pacific Region) and the International Obesity Task Force 2) WC cut points for Korean population by Korean Endocrine Society and for Asian population according to WHO (for any Asian) 3) Population specific cut points for WC: Europoids, Sub-Saharan Africans, Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (Arab) populations M ≥ 94 cm, W ≥ 80 cm; South Asians, Chinese, Japanese, Ethnic South and Central Americans Men > 90 cm Women > 80 cm

Table 2

Summary of the studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome

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1) Modified WC cut points are > 94 cm for men, > 80 cm for women. 2) Due to lack of information, participant taking antihypertensive medication is regarded as having hypertension; diabetes are diagnosed by self-report; missing WC values are calculated from regression model. 3) Modified WC cut points are > 90 cm for men, > 80 cm for women for Asian population according to WHO (Western Pacific Region). 4) ORs for a 3 cups/day vs. none were calculated for the meta-analysis. 5) Modified WC cut points are > 90 cm for men, > 85 cm for women for Asian population according to WHO (for any Asian).

N.A: not available

Table 3

Pooled odds ratios/relative risks and 95% CI for coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome by subgroups

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Notes

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Programme through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A3049866).

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