Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.49(4) > 1081443

J Nutr Health. 2016 Aug;49(4):213-222. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2016.
© 2016 The Korean Nutrition Society
Coffee and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Yujin Lee, Jakyung Son, Jiyoung Jang and Kyong Park
Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongbuk 38541, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-53-810-2879, Email:
Received June 01, 2016; Revised June 14, 2016; Accepted August 09, 2016.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



Coffee is the most frequently consumed food item in South Korea after rice and cabbage. Coffee contains various substances, including caffeine, cafestol, kahweol, chlorogenic acid, and many other known and unknown ingredients with some health benefits. Especially, cumulative evidence has shown that regular coffee use is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, although limited and inconsistent data are available regarding metabolic syndrome.


This study reviewed all available scientific and epidemiologic evidence on coffee consumption, metabolic syndrome, and the association between them. Most epidemiologic research regarding this association was of a cross-sectional design, and a few case-control and cohort studies were available. We conducted meta-analysis with 11 observational studies investigated in Europe, America, and Asia. Summary odds ratios (OR) were calculated using a random-effects model.


The overall OR of metabolic syndrome was 0.90 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.81-0.99) for the highest category of coffee intake compared with the lowest intake category. These associations were stronger in populations of US and Europe (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.94), whereas no association was observed in the Asian population (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.81-1.23).


The review results indicate that frequent coffee consumption may be beneficial to metabolic syndrome, but the association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome may differ by nations or continents.

Keywords: coffee; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis


Fig. 1
Flow diagram of study selection for meta-analysis
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Fig. 2
Forest plot of summary odds ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest versus lowest categories of coffee consumption
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Fig. 3
Influence analysis of coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome among all selected studies
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Fig. 4
Funnel plot testing for publication bias
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Table 1
Criteria of metabolic syndrome by various organizations7, 8, 19, 32
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Table 2
Summary of the studies on the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome
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Table 3
Pooled odds ratios/relative risks and 95% CI for coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome by subgroups
Click for larger image


This research was supported by Basic Science Research Programme through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A3049866).

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