Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(4) > 1081405

J Nutr Health. 2015 Aug;48(4):364-370. Korean.
Published online August 31, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
A study on nutritional intakes in middle income adults based on data from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ji-Myung Kim,1 Hye Sook Kim,2 and Ki Nam Kim3
1Food and Nutrition Major, Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Gyeonggi 11340, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
3Department of Food and Nutrition, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea.

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Received July 18, 2015; Revised July 30, 2015; Accepted August 05, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



This study was conducted to evaluate nutritional status in middle-class adults compared with low income or high income adults according to gender difference.


Data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used. A total of 7,082 adults aged from 30 to 64 were included and classified according to household income level into three groups. Dietary data was collected using 24-hr recall methods.


Most nutrients including energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals such as iron and calcium differed according to income levels. Iron intake of middle-class men was higher than that of the lowest income group, whereas that of middle-class women was similar to that of the lowest income group. In addition, no significant difference in carbohydrate, protein, fat, thiamin, and niacin intakes per 1,000 kcal and iron intake was found between the middle and high income group only in male subjects. In summary, our results showed that the relationship between nutritional status and income level as a socioeconomic parameter could vary according to gender difference.


According to our results, it could be suggested that not only the lowest income people but also middle class women should be concerned in development of nutritional policies. Gender difference should be considered. It is a very meaningful implication for application to policy for obesity prevention or intervention.

Keywords: middle-class; income level; gender different; nutritional status; dietary intake


Table 1
General characteristics according to household incomes
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Table 2
Nutrient intakes according to household incomes
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Table 3
Nutrient density (per 1,000 kcal) according to household incomes
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Table 4
Proportions of subjects with nutrient intake below the estimated average requirement (EAR) according to household incomes
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