Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(2) > 1081386

J Nutr Health. 2015 Apr;48(2):192-198. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
The association between vegetable intake and marital status in Korean adults aged 30 years and over: based on the 2007~2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yeji Baek,1 Hyojee Joung,1,2 and Sangah Shin2,3
1Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
2Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
3AXA Department of Health and Human Security, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-880-2781, Email:
Received July 03, 2014; Revised August 29, 2014; Accepted March 09, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of this study was to examine associations between marital status and vegetable intake.


Data were from participants 30 years and over (n = 18,190) in the 2007~2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Marital status was divided into three groups: married, never married, and separated/divorced/widowed. Vegetable intake was estimated from the twenty-four hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test, analysis of covariance, least squares means, and logistic regression.


Married respondents tend to consume more vegetables, including kimchi, than all other marital status groups. Vegetable intake, excluding kimchi, was lowest among 30~64 year-old respondents who had never married. Elderly men (65 years and older) who were never married/separated/divorced/widowed had significantly lower vegetable intake than elderly men who were married (p = 0.0008). When considering the Korean dietary reference intake (KDRIs), elderly men who were never married/separated/divorced/widowed, compared with elderly men who were married, had a significantly higher odds ratio for consuming fewer vegetables than the KDRIs (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.13~2.37).


The findings of this study indicate that marital status might influence vegetable intake and the probability of consuming fewer vegetables than the KDRIs. In particular, being never married/separated/divorced/widowed might adversely affect vegetable consumption among elderly men, although assessing the causal effect of marital status from this cross-sectional study is difficult.

Keywords: vegetables; marital status; KNHANES


Fig. 1
Least-squares means of vegetable intake by sex and age group, according to marital status*
Abbreviations: Spe, Seperated; Div, Divorced; Wid, Widowed

≥ 65 y: comparison between married and never married/sep/div/wid

*Adjusted for household income, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, subjective health status, energy intake, and household income* occupation

*p value < 0.05

Click for larger image


Table 1
Characteristics of the survey respondents by marital status
Click for larger image

Table 2
Odds ratios(95% CI) from adjusted logistic regression models for less consumption of vegetable than the KDRIs1) by sex and age group, according to marital status
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