Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(2) > 1081381

Jung and Choi: Effects of combined intervention of isoflavone supplementation and exercise on bone metabolism in growing rats

Abstract

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of combined intervention of isoflavones and exercise on bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and biochemical bone markers.

Methods:

Forty rats were divided into four groups; Control, Isoflavones (IF), Isoflavones + Running (IFR), and Isoflavones + Swimming (IFS). All of the rats in this study were fed an experimental diet and deionized water ad libitum for nine weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were estimated using PIXImus (GE Lunar Co, Wisconsin.) in spine and femur nine weeks after feeding or training.

Results:

The combined intervention did not affect weight gain, mean food intake, or food efficiency ratio. The serum concentrations of ALP and osteocalcin were not significantly different by combined intervention. The urinary DPD crosslinks values were not significantly different by combined intervention. There were no significant differences in serum PTH, calcitonin, and estradiol among all groups. Spine BMD, spine BMC and femur BMC were not significantly different by combined intervention. However, femur BMD was significantly higher in the IFR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD, spine BMC, and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the isoflavones supplementation and combined intervention group. In addition, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the IFS group than in the control group. Compared with the isoflavones supplemented group, BMD and BMC were not significantly different by combined intervention.

Conclusion:

It can be concluded that isoflavones supplementation or combined intervention of isoflavone and exercise had a beneficial effect on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing female rats.

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Table 1.
Composition of experimental diets (g/kg of diet)
Ingredients Control Isoflavones(IF)9)
Casein1) 200 200
Corn starch 529.5 527.6
Sucrose 100 100
Soybean oil 70 70
α-Cellulose2) 50 50
Min-mix3) 35 35
Vit-mix4) 10 10
L-Cystine5) 3 3
Choline6) 2.5 2.5
Tert-bultylhydroquinone7) 0.014 0.014
Isovon compound8) . 1.93

1) Casein high protein (total protein 85%), Teklad Test Diets, Medison, Wisconsin, USA

2) α-Cellulose, Sigma-Aldrich Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA

3) AIN-93G-MX, Teklad Test Diets, Medison, Wisconsin, USA

4) AIN-93-VM, Teklad Test Diets, Medison, Wisconsin, USA

5) L-Cystine, Sigma Chemical CO., St. Louis, MO, USA

6) Choline bitartate, Sigma Chemical CO., St. Louis, MO, USA

7) Tert-bultyl hydroquione, Sigma-Aldrich Inc., St. Louis, MO, USA

8) Isovon: Isoflavones compound (total isoflavones 30%: genistein 13.31%, daidzein 7.52%), Pacific Pharmaceuticals Co., Korea

9) Isoflavone group: diet with isoflavone 578 mg per kg diet

※ Calorie % of diet - carbohydrate : protein : fat = 64 : 19 : 17

Table 2.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on weight gains, mean ood intake and food intake efficiency ratio (FER) in growing emale rats
Group Weight gains (g) Mean food intake (g/day) FER
Control 168.7 ± 19.01) 14.7 ± 1.18 0.205 ± 0.02
IF2) 163.9 ± 10.6 13.9 ± 1.21 0.194 ± 0.01
IFR3) 165.5 ± 15.4 14.6 ± 0.67 0.207 ± 0.01
IFS4) 164.0 ± 11.9 14.3 ± 1.08 0.209 ± 0.01

1) Mean ± SD

2) IF: Isoflavones

3) IFR: Isoflavones + Running

4) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

Table 3.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on serum alkalin phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin in growing female rats
Group ALP(U/L) Osteocalcin (ng/mL)
Control 58.3 ± 13.51) 3.35 ± 0.30
IF2) 53.3 ± 15.8 4.45 ± 0.38
IFR3) 63.8 ± 12.8 3.79 ± 0.25
IFS4) 55.4 ± 2.8 4.58 ± 0.14

1) Mean ± SD

2) IF: Isoflavones

3) IFR: Isoflavones + Running

4) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

Table 4.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on deoxypyridinoline (DPD), creatinine and crosslinks value in growing female rats
Group DPD(nM) Creatinine (mM) Crosslink value (nM/mM)
Control 508.5 ± 122.41) 4.3 ± 2.2 135.9 ± 69.2
IF2) 417.8 ± 148.5 3.6 ± 1.3 120.1 ± 29.4
IFR3) 588.1 ± 203.0 4.4 ± 1.0 155.0 ± 89.9
IFS4) 450.1 ± 182.3 2.7 ± 1.7 194.3 ± 67.6

1) Mean ± SD

2) IF: Isoflavones

3) IFR: Isoflavones + Running

4) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

Table 5.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and estradiol in growing female rats
Group PTH (pg/mL) Calcitonin (pg/mL) Estradiol (pg/mL)
Control 11.74 ± 2.331) 1.64 ± 0.24 233.4 ± 31.9
IF2) 14.12 ± 3.87 1.84 ± 0.40 283.9 ± 67.8
IFR3) 15.27 ± 4.12 1.53 ± 0.28 274.6 ± 121.8
IFS4) 13.79 ± 3.04 1.67 ± 0.15 222.3 ± 51.6

1) Mean ± SD

2) IF: Isoflavones

3) IFR: Isoflavones + Running

4) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

Table 6.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on spine bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC)
Group Spine BMD (g/cm2) Spine BMC (g) Spine BMD (g/cm2) /wt (kg) Spine BMC (g) /wt (kg)
Control 0.143 ± 0.0061) 0.428 ± 0.008 0.59 ± 0.04a2) 1.75 ± 0.21a
IF3) 0.147 ± 0.008 0.432 ± 0.033 0.66 ± 0.04b 1.92 ± 0.16b
IFR4) 0.153 ± 0.006 0.457 ± 0.028 0.65 ± 0.03b 1.98 ± 0.09b
IFS5) 0.152 ± 0.013 0.443 ± 0.053 0.68 ± 0.06b 2.01 ± 0.18b

1) Mean ± SD

2) Values with different superscripts within the column are significantly different at p<0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test.

3) IF: Isoflavones

4) IFR: Isoflavones + Running 5) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

Table 7.
Effects of isoflavones and exercise on femur bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC)
Group Femur BMD (g/cm2) Femur BMC (g) Femur BMD (g/cm2) /wt (kg) Femur BMC (g) /wt (kg)
Control 0.196 ± 0.0041)a2) 0.353 ± 0.015 0.79 ± 0.04a 1.49 ± 0.09a
IF3) 0.198 ± 0.009ab 0.356 ± 0.022 0.88 ± 0.04b 1.60 ± 0.08ab
IFR4) 0.208 ± 0.007b 0.367 ± 0.034 0.89 ± 0.06b 1.59 ± 0.08ab
IFS5) 0.201 ± 0.010ab 0.362 ± 0.034 0.90 ± 0.05b 1.67 ± 0.13b

1) Mean ± SD

2) Values with different superscripts within the column are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test.

3) IF: Isoflavones

4) IFR: Isoflavones + Running 5) IFS: Isoflavones + Swimming

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