Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.48(2) > 1081378

J Nutr Health. 2015 Apr;48(2):123-132. Korean.
Published online April 30, 2015.
© 2015 The Korean Nutrition Society
Anti-obesity effect of Korean Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) powder on high-fat diet-induced obese rats
Mi Joung Kim, Hyun Young Jun and Jung Hee Kim
Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 139-774, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. tel: +82-2-970-5646, Email:
Received August 06, 2014; Revised September 04, 2014; Accepted February 27, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The objective of this study was to examine whether Hamcho freeze-dried powder and Hamcho freeze-dried nano powder have an anti-obese effect on high fat diet-induced obese rats.


Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 different groups, each of which was bred for 8 weeks with a different experimental diet: normal diet group (NC), high fat diet group (HFC), high fat diet + 2% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried powder group (2% HS), high fat diet + 5% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried powder group (5%HS), high fat diet + 1% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried nano powder group (1% HSN), high fat diet + 2% Salicornia herbacea L. freeze-dried nano powder group (2% HSN).


The 5% HS group showed a weight loss effect in body weight, liver and adipose tissue by reducing the amount of dietary intake and food efficiency ratio. In addition, the 5% HS group showed a significant reduction of serum leptin concentration, while having a beneficial effect on the improvement of lipid metabolism such as increase the serum concentration of adiponectin. However, Hamcho freeze-dried nano powder did not show a weight loss effect.


Overall data indicated that Hamcho seemed to have anti-obesity effects. In particular, consumption of 5% Hamcho freeze-dried powder might have beneficial effects on body weight, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profiles since it led to reduced body weight and growth of adipose tissues by suppressing dietary intakes. However conduct of further research studies is needed for analysis of active components and biochemical action mechanism of Hamcho.

Keywords: Salicornia herbacea L.; anti-obesity effect; lipid profile; leptin; adiponectin


Fig. 1
Body weight change
Click for larger image


Table 1
Composition of experimental diets (%)
Click for larger image

Table 2
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on final body weight, food intake and food efficiency ratio1)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on liver weight, relative liver weight, epididymal white adipose tissue weight and relative epididymal white adipose tissue weight1)
Click for larger image

Table 4
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on feces weight, feces water and lipid contents1)
Click for larger image

Table 5
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on serum lipid profiles1)
Click for larger image

Table 6
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on liver triglyceride and total cholesterol contents and cytosolic fatty acid synthase level1)
Click for larger image

Table 7
Effect of Salicornia herbacea L. powder on serum leptin and adiponectin1)
Click for larger image


This study was supported by a R&D grant of Korea Institute of Planning & Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (IPET 109147-3).

1. Solomon CG, Manson JE. Obesity and mortality: a review of the epidemiologic data. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66 4 Suppl:1044S–1050S.
2. Albu J, Allison D, Boozer CN, Heymsfield S, Kissileff H, Kretser A, Krumhar K, Leibel R, Nonas C, Pi-Sunyer X, VanItallie T, Wedral E. Obesity solutions: report of a meeting. Nutr Rev 1997;55(5):150–156.
3. Grundy SM. Multifactorial causation of obesity: implications for prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67 3 Suppl:563S–572S.
4. Reddy P, Chow MS. Focus on orlistat: a nonsystemic inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipase for weight reduction in the management of obesity. Formulary 1998;33(10):943–959.
5. Burns AA, Livingstone MB, Welch RW, Dunne A, Rowland IR. Dose-response effects of a novel fat emulsion (Olibra) on energy and macronutrient intakes up to 36 h post-consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56(4):368–377.
6. Delzenne NM, Cani PD, Daubioul C, Neyrinck AM. Impact of inulin and oligofructose on gastrointestinal peptides. Br J Nutr 2005;93 Suppl 1:S157–S161.
7. Zacour AC, Silva ME, Cecon PR, Bambirra EA, Vieira EC. Effect of dietary chitin on cholesterol absorption and metabolism in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1992;38(6):609–613.
8. Oh SJ, Kim YS, Park CY, Kim SW, Yang IM, Kim JW, Choi YK, Paeng JR, Shin HD. Body fat decreasing mechanisms of red ginseng compound. J Korean Soc Study Obes 2000;9(4):209–218.
9. Rhee SJ, Kim KR, Kim HT, Hong JH. Effects of catechin on lipid composition and adipose tissue in obese rats fed high fat diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2007;36(5):540–547.
10. Jeon JR, Kim JY, Lee KM, Cho DH. Anti-obese effects of mixture contained pine needle, black tea and green tea extracts. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2005;48(4):375–381.
11. Lee TB. In: Illustrated flora in Korea. Seoul: Hyangmoonsa; 1980.
12. Lee YN. In: An illustrated book of the Korean flora. Seoul: Kyohaksa; 1996.
13. Kim CS, Song TG. Ecological studies on the halophyte communities at western and southern coasts in Korea (IV): the halophyte communities at the different salt marsh habitats. Korean J Ecol 1983;6(3):167–176.
14. Do JR, Kim EM, Koo JG, Jo KS. Dietary fiber contents of marine algae and extraction condition of the fiber. J Korean Fish Soc 1997;30(2):291–296.
15. Jo YC, Ahn JH, Chon SM, Lee KS, Bae TJ, Kang DS. Studies on pharmacological effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.). Korean J Med Crop Sci 2002;10(2):93–99.
16. Song HS, Kim DP, Jung YH, Lee MK. Antioxidant activities of red Hamcho(Salicornia herbacea L.) against lipid peroxidation and the formation of radicals. Korean J Food Nutr 2007;20(2):150–157.
17. Bang MA, Kim HA, Cho YJ. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of dietary Hamcho powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2002;31(5):840–846.
18. Kim SH, Ryu DS, Lee MY, Kim KH, Kim YH, Lee DS. Anti-diabetic activity of polysaccharide from Salicornia herbacea. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 2008;36(1):43–48.
19. Lee JT, An BJ. Detection of physical activity of Salicornia herbacea. Korean J Herbol 2002;17(2):61–69.
20. Jung BM, Park JA, Bae SJ. Growth inhibitory and quinone reductase induction activities of Salicornia herbacea L. fractions on human cancer cell lines in vitro. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37(2):148–153.
21. Cha JY, Jeon BS, Park JW, Kim BK, Jeong CY, Ryu JS, Choi CK, Cho YS. Hypocholesterolemic effect of yogurt supplemented Salicornia herbacea extract in cholesterol-fed rats. J Life Sci 2004;14(5):747–751.
22. Kim KR, Jang MJ, Choi SW, Woo MH, Choi JH. Effects of water extract from enzymic-treated Hamcho (Salicornia herbacea) on lipid metabolism in rats fed high cholesterol diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2006;35(1):55–60.
23. Kim MJ, Jun HY, Kim JH. Antiadipogenic effect of Korean glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) water extract on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2014;43(6):814–821.
24. Hou JG, Wang Y, Xu W, Yang L, Wu ZQ, Zhang YH. Formation of (110) oriented layered silver nano-crystallites. Mater Lett 1998;34(1-2):36–39.
25. Douroumis D, Fahr A. Nano- and micro-particulate formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs by using a novel optimized technique. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2006;63(2):173–175.
26. Gao H, Chen H, Chen W, Tao F, Zheng Y, Jiang Y, Ruan H. Effect of nanometer pearl powder on calcium absorption and utilization in rats. Food Chem 2008;109(3):493–498.
27. Dey TK, Ghosh S, Ghosh M, Koley H, Dhar P. Comparative study of gastrointestinal absorption of EPA & DHA rich fish oil from nano and conventional emulsion formulation in rats. Food Res Int 2012;49(1):72–79.
28. Nenaah GE. Chemical composition, toxicity and growth inhibitory activities of essential oils of three Achillea species and their nanoemulsions against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Ind Crops Prod 2014;53:252–260.
29. Reagan-Shaw S, Nihal M, Ahmad N. Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. FASEB J 2008;22(3):659–661.
30. Omodeo Salè F, Marchesini S, Fishman PH, Berra B. A sensitive enzymatic assay for determination of cholesterol in lipid extracts. Anal Biochem 1984;142(2):347–350.
31. Masmoudi A, Labourdette G, Mersel M, Huang FL, Huang KP, Vincendon G, Malviya AN. Protein kinase C located in rat liver nuclei. Partial purification and biochemical and immunochemical characterization. J Biol Chem 1989;264(2):1172–1179.
32. Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 1959;37(8):911–917.
33. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193(1):265–275.
34. Cho YS, Kim SI, Han YS. Effects of slander glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) extract on improvements in bowel function and constipation relief. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2008;40(3):326–331.
35. Shin KS, Boo HO, Jeon MW, Ko JY. Chemical components of native plant, Salicornia herbacea L. Korean J Plant Resour 2002;15(3):216–220.
36. Hwang SH, Kim JI, Sung CJ. Analysis of dietary fiber content of some vegetables, mushrooms, fruits and seaweeds. Korean J Nutr 1996;29(1):89–96.
37. Sung NJ, Lee SJ, Shin JH, Chung MJ, Lim SS. Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb powder and juice on lipid composition of liver, brain and kidney in dietary hypercholesterolemic rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 1998;27(6):1230–1235.
38. Soloff LA, Rutenberg HL, Lacko AG. Serum cholesterol esterification in patients with coronary heart disease. Importance of initial rate of esterification expressed as a function of free cholesterol. Am Heart J 1973;85(2):153–161.
39. Després JP. Abdominal obesity as important component of insulinresistance syndrome. Nutrition 1993;9(5):452–459.
40. Artiss JD, Brogan K, Brucal M, Moghaddam M, Jen KL. The effects of a new soluble dietary fiber on weight gain and selected blood parameters in rats. Metabolism 2006;55(2):195–202.
41. Hellerstein MK. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia: modifying factors and implications for cardiovascular risk. Curr Opin Lipidol 2002;13(1):33–40.
42. Wald NJ, Law MR. Serum cholesterol and ischaemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 1995;118 Suppl:S1–S5.
43. Grundy SM. Monounsaturated fatty acids, plasma cholesterol, and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45 5 Suppl:1168–1175.
44. Kim YH. By nutritional and hormonal regulation of fatty acid synthase. Foods Nutr Proc 1996;7:46–58.
45. Hudgins LC, Hellerstein M, Seidman C, Neese R, Diakun J, Hirsch J. Human fatty acid synthesis is stimulated by a eucaloric low fat, high carbohydrate diet. J Clin Invest 1996;97(9):2081–2091.
46. Lakshmanan MR, Nepokroeff CM, Porter JW. Control of the synthesis of fatty-acid synthetase in rat liver by insulin, glucagon, and adenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1972;69(12):3516–3519.
47. Caro JF, Sinha MK, Kolaczynski JW, Zhang PL, Considine RV. Leptin: the tale of an obesity gene. Diabetes 1996;45(11):1455–1462.
48. Piñeiro R, Iglesias MJ, Gallego R, Raghay K, Eiras S, Rubio J, Diéguez C, Gualillo O, González-Juanatey JR, Lago F. Adiponectin is synthesized and secreted by human and murine cardiomyocytes. FEBS Lett 2005;579(23):5163–5169.
49. Matsuzawa Y, Funahashi T, Kihara S, Shimomura I. Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004;24(1):29–33.