Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(5) > 1081307

J Nutr Health. 2013 Oct;46(5):410-417. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2013.
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Effects of age on changes of body composition through caloric restriction in overweight and obese women
Jung-Eun Yim,1 Young-Seol Kim,2 and Ryowon Choue3,4
1Department of Food & Nutrition, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773, Korea.
2Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-west Medical Science, Yongin 446-701, Korea.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee Medical Center, Seoul 130-701, Korea.
4Research Institute of Medical Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received January 18, 2013; Revised February 13, 2013; Accepted September 25, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Caloric restriction is recognized as one of the best treatment options for obesity, and is associated with changes in body composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age in caloric restriction in overweight and obese women. In this caloric restriction study, nutrient intake of 61 women was evaluated using food records written by subjects for three days. Body composition and metabolic risk factors were assessed before and after caloric restriction. Blood levels of lipids, glucose, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Visceral fat and subcutaneous fat were evaluated using bioimpedance analysis. General linear models (GLM) identified the independent effects of age after co-varying baseline weight and difference of energy intake. Weight, fat mass, visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and blood pressure showed a significant decrease by caloric restriction of 452 kcal/day. The percent changes in weight, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat were -4.5%, -12.0%, and -8.2%, respectively, after caloric restriction. The percent changes of weight, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat showed an independent association with age co-varying baseline weight and difference of energy intake. Decreased change in percent of leptin by caloric restriction also showed an association with age. Changes in body composition and leptin by caloric restriction showed an independent association with age. This may indicate greater difficulty in achievement of change of body composition as well as greater obesity-related metabolic risk with aging. Therefore, caloric restriction considering age should be recommended for effective dietary treatment in overweight or obese women.

Keywords: obesity; caloric restriction; age; visceral fat; leptin


Fig. 1
The association of age with difference of energy intakes (A) and difference of goal energy intakes (B) after caloric restriction.
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Fig. 2
Residual of body composition percent changes after adjustment for baseline weight and difference of energy intakes according to the regression equation. Percent change of weight (•) = -10.80-0.02* (baseline weight) + 0.02* (difference of energy intakes), Change percent of subcutaneous fat (▴) = -19.93-0.04* (baseline weight) + 0.06* (difference of energy intakes), Change percent of visceral fat (▪) = -24.08-0.01* (baseline weight) + 0.11* (difference of energy intakes) as a function of age (years). Solid, dashed and solid-dashed lines represent percent changes of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and weight, respectively.
Click for larger image

Fig. 3
Residual of leptin percent changes after adjustment for baseline weight and difference of energy intakes according to the regression equation. Leptin = -138.45 + 1.00* (baseline weight) + 0.05* (difference of energy intakes) as a function of age (years).
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Table 1
Descriptive data and anthropometric data before and after caloric restriction
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Table 2
Daily nutrients intakes before and after caloric restriction
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Table 3
Blood parameters before and after caloric restriction
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Table 4
Independent association of difference of energy intakes with changes of weight, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat
Click for larger image


This research is financially supported by Changwon National University in 2012-2013.

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