Journal List > J Nutr Health > v.46(3) > 1081297

J Nutr Health. 2013 Jun;46(3):285-295. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2013.  https://doi.org/10.4163/jnh.2013.46.3.285
© 2013 The Korean Nutrition Society
Characteristics of the dietary intake of Korean elderly by chewing ability using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010
Ji Eun Park,1 Hee Jung An,1 Sung Ug Jung,1 Yoonna Lee,2 Cho-il Kim,3 and Young Ai Jang1
1Department of Nutrition Research Team, R&D Center, NongShim, Seoul 156-709, Korea.
2Department of Food and Nutrition, Shingu College, Seongnam 462-743, Korea.
3Department of Health Industry Policy, Korea Health Industry Development Institute, Cheongwon 363-951, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: jjang@nongshim.com )
Received May 30, 2013; Revised June 11, 2013; Accepted June 20, 2013.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of the dietary intake of Korean elderly according to chewing ability using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted during 2007-2010. Among subjects aged 65 years and over, more than half, 54.3% of elderly people, were classified as the difficulty in chewing group (DC). The DC group had lower nutrients and food intakes than those of in the no difficulty in chewing group (NDC). Findings showed that subjects in the DC group consumed fewer foods, especially fruits and vegetables. In addition, the DC group had significantly lower intakes of pan-fried food, stir-fried food, braised food, and seasoned-cooked vegetables, which could not be easily cooked or chewed. On the other hand, the number of soups and stews included in the top 30 largely consumed dishes were higher in the DC group than in the NDC group. No difference in numbers of daily meal/snack intake was observed between the two groups, however, the DC group had lower numbers of side-dishes compared to the NDC group. Fewer side-dishes per meal could be related to lower intakes of nutrients in dietary quality. Findings of this study demonstrated that dietary intake was influenced by chewing ability of elderly Korean people. Therefore, study of factors affecting dietary intake such as convenient cooking methods to decrease cooking time and skills to extend preservation and storage time of foods will necessary. In addition, development of food products and new techniques of cooking considering health status, chewing, and swallowing ability is required for the elderly, followed by establishment of standards for senior-friendly food products.

Keywords: chewing ability; elderly; dietary intake; senior-friendly food; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHAENS)

Tables


Table 1
Distribution of general characteristics according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 2
Means of daily nutrient intakes and the rates of nutritional insufficiency risk according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 3
Means of daily food group intakes according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 4
Means of daily dish group intakes according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 5
Mostly consumed dish items according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 6
Frequently consumed dish items according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image


Table 7
Numbers of meal/snack and side-dishes intakes per day according to chewing ability of the elderly
Click for larger image

Notes

This research was supported by High Value-added Food Technology Development Program from iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries), Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.

References
1. Statistics KoreaEstimated future population 2010-2060. Daejeon: Statistics Korea; 2011 [cited 2011 Dec 7].
Available from: http://kostat.go.kr/.
2. Park JH, Kwon HK, Kim BI, Choi CH, Choi YH. A survey on the oral health condition of institutionalized elderly people resident in free asylum. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2002;26(4):555–566.
3. Walls AW, Steele JG. The relationship between oral health and nutrition in older people. Mech Ageing Dev 2004;125(12):853–857.
4. Marshall TA, Warren JJ, Hand JS, Xie XJ, Stumbo PJ. Oral health, nutrient intake and dietary quality in the very old. J Am Dent Assoc 2002;133(10):1369–1379.
5. Mumma RD Jr, Quinton K. Effect of masticatory efficiency on the occurrence of gastric distress. J Dent Res 1970;49(1):69–74.
6. Farrell JH. The effect of mastication on the digestion of food. Br Dent J 1956;100:149–155.
7. Bae YH, Lee HK. The relationship between chewing ability and health status in the urban elderly who resides in the house. Yeungnam Univ J Med 2004;21(1):51–59.
8. Lee MA. Relative effects of health and family factors on geriatric depression. Korean J Community Living Sci 2011;22(4):623–635.
9. Lexomboon D, Trulsson M, Wårdh I, Parker MG. Chewing ability and tooth loss: association with cognitive impairment in an elderly population study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012;60(10):1951–1956.
10. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2009: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010.
11. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Korea Health Industry Development Institute. The Third Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III), 2005 - Nutrition Survey (I). Cheongwon: Korea Health Industry Development Institute; 2006.
12. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Health Industry Development Institute. 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey-Nutrition Survey. Cheongwon: Korea Health Industry Development Institute; 2002.
13. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Health Industry Development Institute. Report on 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey (dietary intake survey). Cheongwon: Korea Health Industry Development Institute; 1999.
14. Choi HS, Moon HK, Kim HY, Choi JS. Evaluation of the health status and dietary intakes of the elderly in rural areas by dental status. J Korean Diet Assoc 2010;16(1):22–38.
15. Cho HL, Cho YH, Lee KH. Dental health status of the elderly and its affecting factors. J Korea Gerontol Soc 1992;12(1):39–55.
16. Jung JO, Oh GJ. A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status, oral health behaviors and periodontitis in the elderly Korean population. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2011;35(1):57–66.
17. Kim MH, Cho YT. Social determinants of oral pain and dental service utilization among the elderly Seoul residents: a multilevel study. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2007;31(1):103–114.
18. Shin BM, Bae SM, Ryu DY, Choi YK. The relationship between the numbers of natural teeth and nutritional status of elderly in Korea -based on 2007-2009 national health and nutrition survey data-. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2012;12(3):521–531.
19. Lee HK, Lee YK. The relationship between chewing ability and health status in the long-lived elderly of Kyungpook area. Yeungnam Univ J Med 1999;16(2):200–207.
20. Gwon MY, Won YS, Kim YS. The study on the state of the elderly oral health and food habits. J Korean Acad Dent Hyg Educ 2009;9(2):13–24.
21. Suh HJ, Hong M, Jang YA, Kim BH, Lee HS, Kim CI. Satisfaction measurement and needs analysis of the beneficiaries of the elderly meal service program. J Korean Diet Assoc 2003;9(2):114–127.
22. Jung HY, Yang IS, Lee HY, Chae IS. Analyzing the current congregate meal service program for homebound elderly. Korean J Community Nutr 2003;8(6):919–926.
23. Statistics KoreaDifficulties of the elderly. Daejeon: Statistics Korea; 2008 [cited 2010 May 12].
Available from: http://kostat.go.kr/.
24. Park JY, Lee KE, Yi NY, Kwak TK. Clients' handling and consumption of home-delivered meals at home and their perceptions on home-delivered meal services for older adults. Korean J Community Nutr 2010;15(3):379–392.
25. Sheiham A, Steele JG, Marcenes W, Finch S, Walls AW. The impact of oral health on stated ability to eat certain foods; findings from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of Older People in Great Britain. Gerodontology 1999;16(1):11–20.
26. Park JY, Kim JN, Hong WS, Shin WS. Survey on present use and future demand for the convenience food in the elderly group. Korean J Community Nutr 2012;17(1):81–90.
27. Jang YJ. In: Status and improving the quality of the meal service in elderly long-term care institutions. Seoul: National Assembly Research Service; 2013.
No. 24 (31-9735025-000661-14).
28. Korea Health Industry Development Institute. A study on survey and analysis of senior-friendly industry. Cheongwon: Korea Health Industry Development Institute; 2011.
29. Korea Health Industry Development Institute. Nutrition management service industry in Japan. Cheongwon: Korea Health Industry Development Institute; 2012.