Journal List > Nat Prod Sci > v.22(3) > 1060617

Indriana, Lee, and Kim: Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Compounds from Arecae Pericarpium with Anti-inflammatory, Anti-oxidative, and Melanogenesis Inhibition Activities


This study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and melanogenesis inhibition activities of methanol extract and various organic solvent fractions of Arecae Pericarpium. We examined the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) scavenging activity, mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity and melanin contents. The study showed that, among all tested fractions, methylene chloride fraction showed the strongest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells (IC50 value 8.89µg/mL) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50 value 21.39µg/ mL). Methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions similarly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity. Methanol extract exhibited strongest reduction of melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Based on the bioactivity assay results, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate fractions were further separated. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated, which are dimeric syringol (1), catechol (2), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (3), vanillin (4), 4-hydroxya-cetophenone (5), apocynin (6), protocatechuic acid (7) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (8). Among the isolated compounds tested, catechol showed the strongest inhibition of LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Catechol also showed the concentration-dependent NF-κ B inhibition activity. Arecae Pericarpium might have potentials to be developed as anti-inflammatory agent or dermatological product for skin-whitening agent.


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Fig. 1.
Effect of Arecae Pericarpium fractions on (A) LPS-induced NO production and (B) Cell viability in RAW 264.7 cells.
Fig. 2.
DPPH scavenging activity of Arecae Pericarpium fractions.
Fig. 3.
Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Arecae Pericarpium fractions.
Fig. 4.
Effect of Arecae Pericarpium extract and fractions on (A) Extracellular melanin content (B) Intracellular melanin content (C) Cell viability in B1F10 melanoma cells.
Fig. 5.
Isolation scheme of Arecae Pericarpium methylene chloride fraction.
Fig. 6.
Isolation scheme of Arecae Pericarpium ethyl acetate fraction.
Fig. 7.
Effect of isolated compounds on (A) NO production and (B) cell viability and (C) NF-κ B inhibition activity of syringol and catechol.
Fig. 8.
Isolated phenolic compounds from Arecae Pericarpium MC and EA fractions.
Table 1.
IC50 and EC50 values of Arecae Pericarpium Fractions on LPS-induced NO production and DPPH scavenging activity
Fraction NO Production [µg/mL]a DPPH Scavenging [µg/mL]b
HX 31.94 40.77
MC 8.89 21.39
EA 13.60 55.49
BuOH >50 >200
DW >50 >200
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