Journal List > Korean J Urogenit Tract Infect Inflamm > v.9(2) > 1059956

Jung, Cho, and Han: Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Phlorotannin on Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis in a Rat Model



Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome account for 90-95% of all prostatitis. Little is known about its pathophysiology, thus, various treatments are used. Ecklonia cava, a seaweed, is a member of the brown algae family; many recent reports have demonstrated that its extract containing phlorotannin has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Using the hormone-induced prostatitis rat model, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of E. cava extracts via its anti-oxidative process on chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.

Materials and Methods

Forty, 10-week-old male white Wistar rats were utilized, and divided equally into the following five groups: 1) control, 2) E. cava-fed, 3) hormone-induced prostatitis (HIP), 4) E. cava-treated HIP, and 5) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-treated HIP.


The results showed statistically-significant improvement in the tissue response to the hormone-induced inflammation among the E. cava-treated and NSAID-treated groups (p<0.05). Lower malonedialdehyde levels were observed in the group with E. cava-treated HIP than with HIP alone, which was statistically significant. We believe that this supports the anti-oxidative properties of E. cava.


This study demonstrates that phlorotannin has anti-inflammatory properties via its anti-oxidative process, which we expect to play an important role in prevention and as an adjuvant therapy for chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.


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Fig. 1.
Prostate section of control group. There is no evidence of chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar change and interstitial fibrosis (H&E stain, ×100).
Fig. 2.
Prostate section of hormone-induced prostatitis group. Severe chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis are seen. The acinar structures are severely atrophied (H&E stain, ×100).
Fig. 3.
Prostate section of Ecklonia cava-treated group. Mild infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells, mildly atrophied acini, and mild interstitial fibrosis are seen (H&E stain, ×100).
Fig. 4.
Severity scores of chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, acinar changes and interstitial fibrosis in each group. ∗p<0.05 compared with hormone-induced prostatitis (HIP) group. NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.
Fig. 5.
Mean malonedialdehyde (MDA) values measured in each group. ∗p<0.05 compared with control group; p<0.05 compared with hormone-induced prostatitis (HIP) group. NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.
Table 1.
Severity scores of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrations, acinar changes and interstitial fibrosis of prostate tissue
Severity score Inflammatory cell infiltration (%) Acinar change (%) Interstitial fibrosis (%)
0 No evidence No evidence No evidence
1 <10 <10 <10
2 10-25 10-25 10-25
3 26-50 26-50 26-50
4 51-75 51-75 51-75
5 76-100 76-100 76-100
Table 2.
Severity scores of chronic inflammatory cell infiltrations, acinar changes and interstitial fibrosis in each group
Group (rats no.) Inflammatory cell infiltration Acinar change Interstitial fibrosis
Control group (n=8) 0 0 0
Ecklonia cava-fed group (n=8) 0 0 0
HIP group (n=8) 4.13±0.84 4.00±0.76 3.88±0.64
E. cava-treated HIP group (n=8) 1.88±0.64 1.75±0.46 1.63±0.74
NSAID-treated HIP group (n=8) 2.13±0.64 2.00±0.76 1.88±0.84

Value are presented as number only or mean±standard deviation. HIP: hormone-induced prostatitis, NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

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