Journal List > Allergy Asthma Respir Dis > v.5(1) > 1059293

Kwak and Park: Assessment of leukotriene E4 in exhaled breath condensate as a marker of inflammation and therapeutic effect in allergic rhinitis children

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies have shown that the cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) could be predictive of inflammatory status and effectiveness of treatment in allergic disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammation and therapeutic effectiveness of cysLT in EBC in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis (AR).

Methods

We enrolled 34 healthy children (median age, 4 years 10 months) and 67 AR children (median age, 5 years 1 month). All of the AR patients received intranasal steroid (fluticasone furoate) once daily for 2 weeks. After 2 week of fluticasone furoate treatment, they were classified into 2 groups: the fluticasone furoate (F) and montelukast (M) groups. We treated each group for another 8 weeks. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness, we used symptom score (SS) and EBC leukotriene E4 (LTE4). EBC samples were collected with RTube. Each parameter was checked at 0, 2, and 10 weeks of therapy.

Results

Most of the AR patients showed clinical improvement with 2- and 10-week fluticasone therapy (F group: 0-week SS, 5.6; 2-week SS, 3.6; 10-week SS, 2.1; P<0.01; M group: 0-week SS, 4.8; 2-week SS, 3.2; 10-week SS, 1.9: P<0.01). LTE4 levels were higher in AR patients than in control subjects (0 week: 87 pg/mL vs. 18 pg/mL) and were reduced after 2 weeks of fluticasone treatment (F group: 90→51.6 pg/mL, P<0.01; M group: 84→46.1 pg/mL, P<0.01). After 10 weeks of treatment, there was no significant difference in the LTE4 level between the F and M groups.

Conclusion

LTE4 in EBC may be useful for evaluating inflammation and therapeutic effectiveness in patients with allergic rhinitis.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Changes of symptom score after treatment. **P<0.01.

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Fig. 2

Changes of leukotriene E4 level in exhaled breath condensate after treatment. **P<0.01.

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Table 1

Characteristics of the allergic rhinitis and control group

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Characteristic Allergic rhinitis (n = 67) Control (n = 34) P-value
Age (yr) 5.1 ± 1.8 4.10 ± 1.2 0.271
Sex, male:female 38:29 19:15 0.611
Family history of allergic diseases 67 2 < 0.01
Specific IgE (+) 67 8 < 0.01
Total IgE (kU/L) 216.3 ± 65.1 20.2 ± 7.5 < 0.01
Total eosinophil count (/μL) 548.2 ± 134.4 54.5 ± 37.6 < 0.01
EBC LTE4 (pg/mL) 87.0 ± 24.2 18.0 ± 5.0 < 0.01

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation or number.

EBC, exhaled breath condensate; LTE4, leukotriene E4.

Table 2

Characteristics of the 2 treatment groups

aard-5-47-i002
Characteristic Fluticasone (n = 34) Montelukast (n = 33) P-value
Age (yr) 5.5 ± 1.7 4.8 ± 0.6 0.317
Sex, male:female 21:13 17:16 0.523
Family history of allergic diseases 34 33
Specific IgE (+) 34 33
Total IgE (kU/L) 210.2 ± 55.1 220.2 ± 88.4 0.547
Total eosinophil count (/µL) 536.1 ± 126.8 580.3 ± 143.0 0.260
EBC LTE4 (pg/mL)
 0 wk 90.0 ± 21.2 84.0 ± 26.3 0.781
 2 wk 51.6 ± 14.2 46.1 ± 12.8 0.445
 10 wk 48.3 ± 11.9 44.5 ± 10.4 0.712
Symptom score
 0 wk 5.6 ± 1.1 4.8 ± 1.2 0.684
 2 wk 3.6 ± 0.7 3.2 ± 0.4 0.593
 10 wk 2.1 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.3 0.841

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation or number.

EBC, exhaled breath condensate; LTE4, leukotriene E4.

Notes

This paper was written as part of Konkuk University's research support program for its faculty on sabbatical leave in 2009.

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