Journal List > Allergy Asthma Respir Dis > v.4(3) > 1059175

Kim, Bae, Kim, Chun, Yoon, Kim, and Kim: Clinical characteristics of interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa in children with wheezing

Abstract

Purpose

Recent studies have shown that interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10/CXCL10) levels is increased in acute bronchiolitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of IP-10 in children with wheezing and whether it correlates with other clinical variables.

Methods

A total of 62 subjects children were hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection with wheezing and visited the Emergency Department due to an acute exacerbation of asthma. IP-10 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum collected at admission. Serum IP-10 levels were evaluated for the relationships with age, sex, blood eosinophils counts, acute phase reactant, allergic sensitization, history of wheezing, and chest X-ray findings.

Results

Age showed a significant negative correlation with serum IP-10 levels (P=0.002). The serum levels of IP-10 were also significantly increased in patients with pneumonic infiltration on X-rays compared to those with normal or hyperinflation (P<0.009). There was no significant difference in the serum IP-10 level according to the other factors, including allergic sensitization.

Conclusion

Serum IP-10 is significantly associated with inflammation of the lung and age, but not with allergic inflammation.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General characteristics of the patients (n=62)

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Characteristic Value
Age (yr) 4 (0.5-14)
 <1 3
 1-5 35
 6-10 18
 ≥11 6
Sex
 Male 39 (62.9)
 Female 23 (37.1)
Symptoms
 Fever 12 (19.4)
 Rhinorrhea 32 (51.6)
History of allergy* 44 (71.0)
Laboratory results
 White blood cell (×103/µL) 11,170 (4,570-30,530)
 Neutrophil (%) 66.0 (11.1-93.6)
 Eosinophil (%) 2.7 (0-21.0)
 ANC (cells/µL) 7,184 (670-28,576)
 ESR (mm/hr) 11.5 (0-69)
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 0.43 (0-10.38)
Total IgE (IU/mL) 323 (5.8-3,440)
IP-10 (pg/mL) 1,070 (203-7,606)

Values are presented as median (range) or number (%).

ANC, absolute neutrophil count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa.

*History of allergy includes asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergy.

Table 2

Associations of IP-10 with factors in children with wheezing

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Variable Age (yr) No. of cases (n=62) IP-10 (pg/mL) P-value
Sex 0.109
 Male 4 (0.6-12) 39 (62.9) 948 (203-4,656)
 Female 5 (0.5-14) 23 (37.1) 1,392 (217-7,606)
Allergic sensitization 0.388
 No sensitization 4 (0.5-14) 21 (33.9) 1,061 (256-4,656)
 Sensitization 5 (3-12) 41 (66.1) 1,079 (203-7,606)
Previous wheezing history 0.907
 First wheezer 4 (0.9-10) 12 (19.3) 954 (279-4,656)
 Past wheezer 5 (0.5-12) 41 (66.1) 998 (203-3,567)
Eosinophils count 0.092
 <4 4 (0.5-12) 37 (59.7) 1,275 (203-7,606)
 ≥4 7 (3-14) 23 (37.1) 963 (217-2,678)
Chest X-ray 0.009
 Normal 7 (0.5-14) 31 (50.0) 925 (203-3,860)
 Hyperinflation 4 (3-12) 19 (30.6) 1,283 (279-2,401)
 Pneumonic infiltration 3 (0.9-11) 12 (19.4) 2,558 (684-7,606)

Values are presented as median (range) or number (%).

IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa.

Table 3

Associations of inflammatory factors with chest X-ray findings

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Variable Normal Hyperinflation Pneumonic infiltration P-value
Median (range) No.* Median (range) No.* Median (range) No.*
Eosinophil (%) 3.5 (0-13.2) 30 3.1 (0.1-21.0) 18 1.4 (0-7.4) 12 0.240
WBC (× 103/µL) 10,790 (6,100-19,130) 29 12,150 (4,920-30,530) 17 7,875 (4,570-18,570) 12 0.129
ESR (mm/hr) 9.0 (0.0-69.0) 30 11.0 (0.0-53.0) 18 17.5 (7.0-55.0) 12 0.234
CRP (mg/dL) 0.2 (0.0-2.5) 31 0.6 (0.0-2.8) 19 0.2 (0.1-10.4) 12 0.185
ANC (cells/µL) 6,942 (1,634-16,281) 29 8,515 (1,338-28,576) 17 5,645 (670-14,967) 12 0.170

WBC, white blood cell; CRP, C-reactive protein; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

*Number of cases.

Table 4

Correlation between IP-10 and other inflammatory factors according to chest X-ray findings

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Factor Normal Hyperinflation Pneumonic infiltration
No.* Coefficient P-value No.* Coefficient P-value No.* Coefficient P-value
Eosinophil 30 -0.085 0.655 18 -0.350 0.154 12 -0.294 0.354
WBC 29 0.037 0.849 17 0.049 0.851 12 -0.573 0.051
CRP 31 0.112 0.548 19 0.007 0.977 12 -0.438 0.154
ESR 30 -0.218 0.247 18 -0.107 0.671 12 -0.014 0.965
ANC 29 0.083 0.669 17 0.059 0.822 12 -0.608 0.035

IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa; WBC, white blood cell; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ANC, absolute neutrophil count.

*Number of cases.

Table 5

Correlation between IP-10 and factors in children with wheezing

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Factor IP-10 (n = 62) Coefficient P-value
Age (yr) 62 -0.380 0.002
WBC (× 103/µL) 58 -0.167 0.211
Eosinophil (%) 60 -0.234 0.071
ANC (cells/µL) 58 -0.153 0.252
ESR (mm/hr) 60 -0.066 0.615
CRP (mg/dL) 62 0.074 0.569

IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa; WBC, white blood cell; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP, C-reactive protein.

Table 6

Multiple regression analysis of IP-10 and factors in children with wheezing

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Variable Univariable Multivariable
β SE P-value β SE P-value
Allergic sensitization -0.2393 0.2251 0.2922 - - -
Age -0.1019 0.0315 0.0020 -0.0907 0.0377 0.0203
CXR: pneumonic infiltrarion 0.6606 0.2865 0.0247 0.6548 0.2870 0.0272
First wheezer 0.0977 0.2625 0.7114 0.0006 0.2478 0.9980
Eosinophil (> 4%) -0.0281 0.0269 0.3011 0.0252 0.0264 0.3450

IP-10, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa; SE, standard error; CXR, chest X-ray.

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