Journal List > Allergy Asthma Respir Dis > v.3(6) > 1059137

Yang, Lee, Shim, Kim, Jung, Park, and Shim: Relationship between serum interleukin-31/25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the severity of atopic dermatitis in children

Abstract

Purpose

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Vitamin D and interleukin-31 (IL-31) are known to be related to the pathogenesis of AD with pruritus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and IL-31 and the disease severity of AD in children with AD.

Methods

We recruited 160 children with AD and 42 controls. We used the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index to measure the severity of AD. Serum IL-31 and 25(OH)D levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Serum levels of total IgE, specific IgE to common allergens and peripheral blood total eosinophil count were carried out in children with AD.

Results

Serum IL-31 level was significantly higher in AD group compared to control group and 25(OH)D level was significantly lower in AD group than control group. Serum IL-31 level showed the highest level in severe AD group followed by moderate and mild AD group, whilst serum 25(OH)D level was the lowest in severe AD group compared to moderate and mild AD group. There was no difference in serum IL-31 level between AD group and nonatopic dermatitis group. IL-31 level was positively correlated with subjective SCORAD index indicating pruritus in children with AD, and 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with SCORAD index.

Conclusion

IL-31 and vitamin D may be related to the pathogenesis of AD, especially with regard to the pruritus.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Serum levels of 25(OH)D and IL-31 in children with atopic dermatitis and control group. (A) Serum IL-31 level was significantly higher in AD group compared to control group and (B) 25(OH)D level was significantly lower in AD group compared to control group. 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; IL, interleukin; AD, atopic dermatitis.

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Fig. 2

Correlation between the SCORAD index, subjective SCORAD index, serum levels of 25(OH)D, and IL-31. The levels of IL-31 showed a positive correlation with the SCORAD index (A), and subjective SCORAD index (B). The levels of 25(OH)D were inversely correlated with the SCORAD index (C), and subjective SCORAD index (D). (E) The levels of 25(OH)D were inversely correlated with the IL-31 concentration. SCORAD, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; IL, interleukin.

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Table 1

Clinical and laboratory characteristics of study subject

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Characteristic AD (n = 160) Control (n = 42) P-value
Age (yr) 6.2 ± 3.2 5.4 ± 2.4 0.14
Male sex (%) 47.5 54.8 0.40
FHx of AD (%) 34.0 9.4 0.01
LogIgE (IU/mL) 4.9 ± 1.5 4.0 ± 1.2 0.01
LogTEC (/mm3) 5.9 ± 0.7 5.1 ± 1.1 0.00
Atopic sensitization (%) 58.1 0 0.00

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation unless otherwise indicated.

AD, atopic dermatitis; Fhx of AD, family history of AD; logIgE, logarithmic transformation of serum total IgE; logTEC, logarithmic transformation of blood total eosinophil count.

Table 2

Comparison of IL-31, 25(OH)D, total IgE, and blood eosinophil count by severity of atopic dermatitis

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Variable Atopic dermatitis severity P-value
Mild Moderate Severe
IL-31 (pg/mL) 127.3±24.7 882.7±108.7 1,810.4±256.9 0.00
25(OH)D (ng/mL) 29.9±9.9 21.7±8.4 15.7±4.5 0.00
LogIgE (IU/mL) 4.6±1.5 4.7±1.4 4.9±1.7 0.34
LogTEC (/mm3) 5.7±0.3 5.7±0.7 6.2±0.7 0.00

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

IL, interleukin; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; logIgE, logarithmic transformation of serum total IgE; logTEC, logarithmic transformation of blood total eosinophil count.

Table 3

Comparison of IL-31, 25(OH)D, total IgE, and blood eosinophil count in children with atopic dermatitis by atopic sensitization

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Variable Atopic dermatitis P-value
Atopic Nonatopic
IL-31 (pg/mL) 818.9±104.4 1,169.8±207.9 0.10
25(OH)D (ng/mL) 23.7±9.8 19.2±8.4 0.00
LogIgE (IU/mL) 5.6±1.1 3.7±1.4 0.00
LogTEC (/mm3) 6.0±0.6 5.7±0.8 0.00

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

IL, interleukin; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; logIgE, logarithmic transformation of serum total IgE; logTEC, logarithmic transformation of blood total eosinophil count.

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