Journal List > J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs > v.28(3) > 1058469

J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs. 2017 Sep;28(3):280-290. Korean.
Published online September 30, 2017.
© 2017 Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
Smartphone Addiction and Depression: The Mediating Effects of Self-esteem and Resilience among Middle School Students
Hyejung Park,1 and Eunsuk Choi2
1Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea.
2College of Nursing · Research Institute of Nursing Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Corresponding author: Choi, Eunsuk College of Nursing, Kyungpook National University,680, Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 41944, Korea. Tel: +82-53-420-4936, Fax: +82-53-421-2758, Email:
Received March 07, 2017; Revised August 07, 2017; Accepted August 09, 2017.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aim of this research is to examine the moderating effects of self-esteem and resilience in the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression among middle school students.


Data were collected from 324 middle school students in D City during the period of July 1st-17th, 2015. Multiple regression analysis, the Baron & Kenny's mediation verification, and Sobel test were conducted to measure the mediating effects of self-esteem and resilience on depression.


There were significant correlations among the variables; smartphone addiction, self-esteem, resilience, and depression. Self-esteem had a complete mediating effect(β=-.40, p<.001) in the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression(Sobel test: Z=4.68, p<.001). Resilience had a partial mediating effect(β=-.15, p<.001) in the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression(Sobel test: Z=2.40, p<.001).


This study suggests to apply self-esteem and resilience in developing nursing intervention programs for adolescent depression caused by smartphone addiction.

Keywords: Addictive behavior; Adolescent; Depression; Psychological resilience; Self esteem; Smartphone


Figure 1
Modeling showing the influence smartphone addiction on depression and the mediating effect of self-esteem and resilience.
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Table 1
Smartphone Addiction, Self-esteem, Resiliency, and Depression according to General Characteristics (N=324)
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Table 2
Correlations among Smartphone Addiction, Self-esteem, Resiliency, and Depression (N=324)
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Table 3
Mediating Effect of Self-esteem in the Relationship between Smartphone Addiction and Depression (N=324)
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Table 4
Mediating Effect of Resilience in the Relationship between Smartphone Addiction and Depression (N=324)
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This manuscript is a revision of the first author's master's thesis from Kyungpook National University.

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