Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.24(2) > 1058036

Yoo and Kim: Impact of Perceived Parenting Styles on Depression and Smartphone Addition in College Students

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study were to examine differences in depression and smartphone addiction among four styles of perceived parenting, and determine whether the perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting are associated with depression and smartphone addiction among college students.

Methods

A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 378 undergraduate students responded to the survey. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression with IBM SPSS statistics version 21.

Results

Levels of depression and smartphone addiction were significantly different according to the four styles of perceived parenting (optimal parenting, affectionate constraint parenting, affectionless control parenting, and neglectful parenting). Scores of depression and smartphone addiction in the group with perceived affectionless control parenting were higher than those in the other groups. In a regression model, maternal care and paternal overprotection were significantly associated with depression. Also, maternal overprotection was the only significant predictor of smartphone addiction.

Conclusion

These results suggest that students who perceive that both fathers and mothers are low in care, warmth, and support; but high in overprotection, control and intrusiveness are vulnerable to depression and smartphone addiction. Targeted interventions to change and reframe students' perception of paternal and maternal parenting in a positive way may reduce their depression and smartphone addiction.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

General Characteristics and Descriptive Statistics of Study Variables (N=378)

jkapmhn-24-127-i001

*Measured according to the PBI (Care range=0 to 36; higher scores indicate higher Care); Measured according to the PBI (Overprotection range=0 to 39; higher scores indicate higher Overprotection); Measured according to the S-Scale (range=15 to 60; higher scores indicate Smartphone Addiction).

Table 2

Differences of Depression and Smartphone Addiction by Four Styles of Perceived Parenting (N=378)

jkapmhn-24-127-i002

OP=Optimal parenting; ACP=Affectionate constraint parenting; ALCP=Affectionless control parenting; NP=Neglectful parenting; *Measured according to the CES-D (range=0 to 60; higher scores indicate higher depression); Measured according to the S-Scale (range=15 to 60; higher scores indicate smartphone addiction); Measured according to the PBI.

Table 3

Correlations among Perception of Parenting, Depression and Smartphone Addiction (N=378)

jkapmhn-24-127-i003
Table 4

Regression Results for Influence of Perception of Parenting on Depression and Smartphone Addiction (N=378)

jkapmhn-24-127-i004

Notes

This is manuscript is based on a part of the first author's doctoral dissertation from Ewha Womans University.

It is supported by the Hanmaeum Scholarship from the Seoul Nurses Association.

References

1. Bigner J, Gerhaedt C. Parent-child relations: an introduction to parenting. Ninth ed. NEW JERSEY: Pearson;2012. p. 40.
2. Choi SJ. Psychology of Korean. Seoul: Hakjisa;2011. p. 333.
3. Chung JN, Choi KS. Parental control and Korean family. Fam Cult. 2008; 20(4):183–203.
4. Yoo lY. Parenting stress of adolescent children. Korean Parent Child Health J. 2005; 8(1):17–22.
5. Kim SG. Multicultural families in Korea: their socioeconomic characteristics in a policy perspective. Health Welf Policy Forum. 2010; 165:5–18.
6. Lee YW, Kim JJ, Yim SY, Chae MO, Lee HR, Oh J. An evolutionary concept analysis of helicopter parenting. Child Health Nurs Res. 2014; 20(4):237–246. DOI: 10.4094/chnr.2014.20.4.237.
7. Arnett JJ. Emerging adulthood: the winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press;2014. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199929382.001.0001.
8. OECD. Education at a Glance 2014: Country Notes (Korea) [Internet]. 2014. cited 2015.03.14.Available from: http://www.oecd.org/general/searchresults/?q=Education%20At%20a%20Glance%20Korea&cx=012432601748511391518:xzeadub0b0a&cof=FORID:11&ie=UTF-8.
9. Statistics Korea. Higher education graduates employment rate [Internet]. 2014. cited 2015.03.14.Available from: http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd=1551.
10. Kim EJ. Emerging adulthood as the new developmental stage: understanding the new way of coming of age in Korea. Discourse 201. 2014; 17(3):83–129. DOI: 10.17789/discou.2014.17.3.004.
11. Schwartz SJ, Hardy SA, Zamboanga BL, Meca A, Waterman AS, Picariello S, et al. Identity in young adulthood: links with mental health and risky behavior. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2015; 36:39–52. DOI: 10.1016/j.appdev.2014.10.001.
12. Song JY, Paik JW, Kim JW. Development of a model for the detection and management of depression in young adult. Seoul National Hospital Natl Cent Ment Health Res and Educ;2008. p. 141.
13. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future planning. 2013 Prevalence of Internet Addiction [Internet]. 2014. cited 2015.03.18.Available from: http://Korea.go.kr/govTask/govTaskDetailView.do?seq=830&govCode=1710000.
14. Kim BN, Choi Hl. Effects of study overprotective parent's raising attitude on university student's smartphone-addiction: the mediating effects of self-control. Soc Sci Res. 2013; 29(1):1–25.
15. Kim BN, Ko EJ, Choi Hl. A study on factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students: a focus on differences in classifying risk groups. Stud Korean Youth. 2013; 24(3):67–98.
16. Jung ES, Lee JY. Influence of parent's child-rearing attitudes, social support and hardiness on subjective happiness. J Korea Contents Assoc. 2013; 13(9):204–215. DOI: 10.5392/jkca.2013.13.09.204.
17. Parker G. Parental 'affectionless control' as an antecedent to adult depression: a risk factor delineated. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983; 40(9):956–960. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790080038005.
18. Otani K, Suzuki A, Matsumoto Y, Sadahiro R, Enokido M. Affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Compr Psychiatry. 2014; 55(6):1411–1414. DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.003.
19. Toda M, Ezoe S, Nishi A, Mukai T, Goto M, Morimoto K. Mobile phone dependence of female students and perceived parental rearing attitudes. Self Identity. 2008; 36(6):765–770. DOI: 10.2224/sbp.2008.36.6.765.
20. Kim NS, Lee KE. Effects of self-control and life stress on smart phone addiction of university students. J Korean Soc Health Inf Health Stat. 2012; 37(2):72–83.
21. Song JY. The Development of the parental bonding instrument-Korean version: evaluation of the test reliability and validity. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc. 1992; 31(5):979–992.
22. Cho MJ, Kim KH. Diagnostic validity of the CES-D(Korean version) in the assessment of DSM-III-R major depression. J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc. 1993; 32(3):381–399.
23. Kim ST. Development of Korean smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth and adults. National Information Society Agency, Galam Publishing;2011. p. 38–65.
24. Lee SH, Kim SJ. The degree of perceived stress, depression and self esteem of university students. J Korean Acad Public Health Nurs. 2012; 26(3):453–464. DOI: 10.5932/jkphn.2012.26.3.453.
25. Schnetzer LW, Schulenberg SE, Buchanan EM. Differential associations among alcohol use, depression and perceived life meaning in male and female college students. J Subst Use. 2013; 18(4):311–319.
26. Williams CL, Harfmann EJ, Ingram RE, Hagan KE, Kramer NM. Specificity of parental bonding and rumination in depressive and anxious emotional distress. Pers Individ Dif. 2015; 79:157–161. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.055.
27. Grant KA, Bautovich A, McMahon C, Reilly N, Leader L, Austin MP. Parental care and control during childhood: associations with maternal perinatal mood disturbance and parenting stress. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2012; 15(4):297–305. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-012-0292-0.
28. Lee SH. A review on cross-cultural understanding and applications of self-determination. Asian J Educ. 2009; 10(1):1–32. DOI: 10.15753/aje.2009.10.1.001.
29. Bowlby J. Developmental psychiatry comes of age. Am J Psychiatry. 1988; 145(1):1–10. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.145.1.1.
TOOLS
Similar articles