Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.24(2) > 1058034

Kang: Effects of Enneagram Program for Self-esteem, Interpersonal Relationships, and GAF in Psychiatric Patients



The purpose of this study was to develop an enneagram program and to investigate the effects of the enneagram program on self-esteem, interpersonal relationship and GAF(Global assessment of Functioning Scale) in psychiatric patients.


A nonequivalent control group pre-post test design was used. Participants were 46 psychiatric patients. Participants were assigned to the experimental group(n=21) or control group(n=25). The experimental group participated in the enneagram program for 12 hours through eight sessions. The control group(n=25) received a routine nursing activity program.


The experimental group that participated in the enneagram program showed higher scores for self-esteem(t=3.73, p=.001), interpersonal relationship(t=2.63, p=.012) and GAF(t=2.43, p=.019) compared to the control group.


The results indicate that an enneagram program for psychiatric patients is effective in improving self-esteem, interpersonal relationship and overall functioning skills. Therefore, it is suggested that an active use of this enneagram program as a nursing intervention for psychiatric patients would be beneficial.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Enneagram Program Overview of Eight Sessions

Table 2

Homogeneity Test of Sociodemographic and Illness-related Characteristics of the Participants (N=46)


*Fisher's exact test; Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group; OCD=Obsessive compulsive disorder.

Table 3

Homogeneity Test of Dependent Variables


Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group; RSES=Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; RCS=Relationship Change Scale; GAF=Global Assessment of Functioning Scale.

Table 4

Comparison of the Differences of the RSES, RCS, GAF Scores between Groups


Exp.=Experimental group; Cont.=Control group; RSES=Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; RCS=Relationship Change Scale; GAF=Global Assessment of Functioning Scale.


This is manuscript is based on a part of the first author's doctoral dissertation from Seoul National University.


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