Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.21(1) > 1057954

Ko and Hah: Types of Physical Restraint Experience in Mentally Ill Persons: Q Methodological Approach



The purpose of this study was to identify the patterns of physical restraint experience in mentally ill persons.


Q-methodology, an approach designed to discover patterns in various subjective experiences, was used. Twenty-two participants classified 36 selected Q-statements on a nine-point scale to create a normal distribution. The collected data were analyzed using the PC Quanl Program.


Five types of physical restraint experience in mentally ill persons were identified by the participants. Type I Emotional reaction-explosive anger, Type II Emotional reaction-internalized anger, Type III Rational reaction-rejection, Type IV Rational reaction-acceptance, Type V Rational reaction-trust.


The results of this study provide an understanding that different types of reactions to physical restraint experience exist and that each type has certain characteristics, which suggest a need to develop interventions specifically designed for each type of physical restraint experience.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Eigenvalues and Variances for Each Type
Table 2
Correlations between Types
Table 3
General Characteristics and Factor Weights of Subjects

DT=duration of treatment; FH=frequency of hospitalization; FR=frequency of restraint; RA=rejection of admission; VWR=violation of the ward rules; AB=aggressive behaviors; DMS=defiance to medical staffs; FOP=fighting with other patient.

Table 4
Q-statement and Typal Z-score


This article is a revision of the first author's master's thesis from Seoul National University.


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