Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.21(3) > 1057945

Bae, Park, and Yang: Effects of a Self-discovery Program for Ego resilience, Self-esteem, Stress and Depression in Elementary School Students

Abstract

Purpose

This study was done to identify the effects of a Self-discovery Program for elementary school students. The study consisted of two phases: Developing the program and evaluating its effectiveness.

Methods

Forty six students who were in elementary school in B city participated in a survey, which was carried out from May 25 to July 15, 2010. To test the effects of the Self-discovery Program, the participants were divided into two groups, an experimental group (n=23) and a control group (n=23). The research design used in this study was a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest research design. Data were analyzed by using χ2-test, t-test and ANCOVA with the SPSS/WIN 14.0 program.

Results

Significant differences were found in scores for self-esteem (t=2.60, p=.006), stress (F=18.65, p<.001) and depression (F=23.88, p<.001) between the experimental group and the control group.

Conclusion

The results indicate that Self-discovery Program should be used with children to help them and to improve their mental health.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Outline of Self-discovery Program for Elementary School Students
jkapmhn-21-210-i001
Table 2
Homogeneity Test for General Characteristics of Subject
jkapmhn-21-210-i002

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Fisher's exact test.

Table 3
Homogeneity Test of Dependent Variables between Experimental Group and Control Group
jkapmhn-21-210-i003

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

Table 4
Comparisons of Ego-resiliency, Self-esteem, Stress, and Depression between Experimental Group and Control Group (N=46)
jkapmhn-21-210-i004

Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.

ANCOVA result.

References

1. Bae JY, Jeong ST, Noh MS, Sohn HS, Hong JH, Yeom SR, et al. Construction of the Busan injury surveillance system and middle and long-term planning for WHO international safe community promotion. 2011. Busan: Busan Metropolitan City and Inje University.
2. Bak BG, Lee SY, Song HS. Development of ego-resiliency enhancement program and testing its effects. Korean Journal of Educational Psychology. 2010. 24:61–82.
3. Beverly S. Combining mandala and the Johari Window: An exercise in self-awareness. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. 2007. 2:8–11.
4. Block J, Kremen A. IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1996. 70:349–361.
5. Block JH, Block J. Collins WA, editor. The role of ego control and ego resiliency in the organization of behavior. Minesota Sympasia on Child Psychology. 1980. 13:39–101. .
6. Cho BH. Development of daily hassles scale and daily hassles coping behaviors scale for elementary school children. Korean Society for Child Education. 2006. 15(3):5–21.
7. Cho ES, Seo JM. Factors influencing children's mental health state. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2010. 19:57–66.
8. Choi BG, Jeon GY. A study on the construct validity of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Journal of Korean Home Economics Association. 1992. 24:1–15.
9. Choi EH, Jue J. The effect of group art therapy on the self-esteem and the depression of institutionalized children. Journal of Psychotherapy. 2005. 5(2):107–121.
10. Coopersmith S. The antecedents of self-esteem. 1967. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
11. Han MH, Yoo AJ. Development of daily hassles scale for children in Korea. Journal of The Korea Home Economics Association. 1995. 33(4):49–64.
12. Han YJ. Children's and adolescents' depression, attributional style and academic achievement. 1993. Seoul: Seoul National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
13. Heo SY, Lee S. Effects of a group theraplay program on the ego resilience and internalizing disorder of first-grade school children. Journal of Play Therapy. 2010. 14(3):75–92.
14. Jennifer SM, Natalie CA. The effects of childhood stress on health across the lifespan. 2008. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
15. Kim CK, Kim MH. The effects of bibliotherapy program on a depression, daily stress, and self-esteem of depressed children. Journal of Korean Society of Child Welfare. 2005. 14:75–105.
16. Kim HJ, Kim NY. The effects of dance/movement therapy on the ego-resilience and self-efficacy of children from low-income families. Journal of Psychotherapy. 2009. 9(2):127–158.
17. Kim IH. The effects of a praise activity program on self-esteem and social behavior in poverty-stricken children. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 2008. 17:245–254.
18. Korea National Statistical Office. Statistics result in cause of death. 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2011. from https://www.index.go.kr/egams/stts/jsp/potal/stts/PO_STTS_IdxMain.jsp?idx_cd=1012&bbs=INDX_001.
19. Kovacs M. Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta paedopsychiatrica. 1981. 46:305–315.
20. Lee HS, Chung HH. Effects of a school-based social skills training program for shy children. Korean Journal of School Psychology. 2004. 1(1):79–100.
21. Martha D, Elizabeth RE, Matthew M. CN Son . Leader's guide to the relaxation & stress reduction workbook. 2000. Seoul: Hana.
22. Ministry of Health Welfare and Family Affair. Mental health programs for children and adolescents. 2006. Seoul: Author.
23. Myong BH, Chung EC. Therapeutic recreation. 2006. Seoul: Baek-San.
24. O'Connell-Higgins R. Psychological resilience and capacity for intimacy. 1983. Harvard Graduate school of Education;Qualifying paper.
25. Oh YS, Yu HK, Kim HK. The development of a group counseling program using sociodrama to promote ego-resilience of upper graders of the elementary school. Journal of Korea Elementary Education. 2010. 21(1):157–176.
26. Park EH. The relationships between ego-resilience, IQ and academic achievement. 1996. Daejeon: Chungnam National University;Unpublished master's thesis.
27. Shin JY, Hwang HW. The stress of early adolescents and the effects of selected ecosystemic protective factors on the psychological and social adjustments. Korean Journal of Youth Studies. 2006. 13(5):123–154.
28. Wicks CR. Resilience: An integrative framework for measurement. 2005. California, USA: Loma Linda University;Unpublished Doctoral dissertation.
29. Yoo SL, Eum JH, Park JG. The role of ego-resilience in associations between self-efficacy, stress, and self-esteem in elementary physical education setting. Korean Journal of Sport Psychology. 2011. 22(4):163–182.
TOOLS
Similar articles