Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.21(2) > 1057938

J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2012 Jun;21(2):149-157. Korean.
Published online June 30, 2012.
© 2012 The Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Factors related to Happiness in First year Women Nursing Students
Gyung Hee Kim,1 and Kye Ha Kim2
1Associate Professor, Seoul Women's College of Nursing, Seoul, Korea.
2Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea.

Corresponding author: Kim, Kye Ha. Department of Nursing, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, Korea. Tel: +82-62-230-6326, Fax: +82-62-230-6329, Email:
Received February 27, 2012; Revised April 17, 2012; Accepted June 25, 2012.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to happiness in first year women nursing students.


The sample consisted of 209 first year women nursing students in three colleges located in S and C cities. Data were collected during October and November 2011. The major variables for this study were depression, self-esteem, optimism, interpersonal relation, and happiness. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and multiple stepwise regression with SPSS/WIN 17.0.


There were significant differences in student happiness according to economic status, satisfaction with major, satisfaction with the present college, and health status. Happiness was significantly correlated with depression, self-esteem, optimism, and interpersonal relations. Self-esteem, optimism, interpersonal relations, and satisfaction with major were significant predictors of happiness for first year women nursing students and these four factors accounted for 71% of the variance in happiness.


Self-esteem, optimism, interpersonal relations, and satisfaction with major should be considered when addressing ways to increase happiness in first year women nursing students.

Keywords: Happiness; Depression; Self-concept; Optimism; Interpersonal relations


Table 1
General Characteristics (N=209)
Click for larger image

Table 2
Levels of Variables (N=209)
Click for larger image

Table 3
Happiness by General Characteristics (N=209)
Click for larger image

Table 4
Correlation among Study Variables (N=209)
Click for larger image

Table 5
Regression Analysis for Happiness (N=209)
Click for larger image

1. Bae GI. Korean 'quality of life'. 2011 Aug 22 [Retrieved October 13, 2011].
2. Beck AT. In: The Beck Depression Inventory. Philadelphia: Center for Cognitive Therapy; 1978.
3. Chang EC, Maydeu-Oilvares A, D'Zurilla TJ. Optimism and pessimism as partially independent constructs: Relationship to positive and negative affectivity and psychological well-being. Pers Individ Dif 1997;23:433–440.
4. Choi MO. The study of comparing the factors affecting male and female happiness-focusing on the city of Busan. Soc Sci Res Rev 2011;27:19–40.
5. Choi YW, Lee SJ. The influence of individual differences in emotional awareness on mental health of college students. Korean J Health Psychol 2004;9:887–901.
6. Cloninger CR, Zohar AH. Personality and the perception of health and happiness. J Affect Disord 2011;128(1-2):24–32.
7. Diener E, Suh E, Lucas RE, Smith HL. Subjective well-being: The decades of progress. Psychol Bull 1999;125:276–302.
8. Gao HY. A comparative study on mental health and happiness between Chinese and Korean college students. Asian J Educ 2009;10:55–71.
9. Hills P, Argyle M. The Oxford happiness questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Pers Individ Dif 2002;33:1073–1082.
10. Jeon BJ. Self-esteem: A test of its measurability. Yonsei Nonchong 1974;11:107–129.
11. Jo KH. Perception of undergraduate nursing students toward happiness: A Q-Methodological approach. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ 2011;17:178–189.
12. Jo KH, Kim YK. Understanding the meaning of happiness expressed by nursing students through collage art works: A content analysis. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ 2010;16:61–71.
13. Kim CH. The relationship among interpersonal relations, identification about school and satisfaction with campus life of students participating in sports club activities. J Sport Leis Stud 2011;43:999–1010.
14. Kim KM, Lim JH. Effects of optimism and orientations to happiness on psychological well-being of college students. J Korean Home Econ Assoc 2012;50(1):89–101.
15. Kim KS. In: The development and application of a program for college students' psychological well-being. Busan: Kyungsung University; 2006.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
16. Koo JS, Kim UC. Integrated relationship among psychological trait, life experience, and subjective well-being. Korean J Soc Pers Psychol 2006;20(4):1–18.
17. Lee M. Korean adolescents' "Examination hell" and their use of free time. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2003;99:9–22.
18. Lee YH, Song JY. A study of the reliability of the BDI, SDS, and MMPI-D scales. Korean J Clin Psychol 1991;10:98–113.
19. Lee YJ. The efforts for becoming happy of college students. Asian J Educ 2011;12:63–84.
20. Lim YS. Learning styles of the interior design students and their attitudes and aptitudes toward major. J Soc Korea Design Trend 2011;32:217–226.
21. Lyubomirsky S, Sheldon KM, Schkade D. Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Rev Gen Psychol 2005;9:111–131.
22. Mahon NE, Yarcheski A, Yarcheski TJ. Happiness as related to gender and health in early adolescents. Clin Nurs Res 2005;14:175–190.
23. Moon SM. A study on the effects of human relations training of university students. J Gyeongsang Natl Univ 1980;19:195–204.
24. Nanthamongkolchai S, Tuntichaivanit C, Munsawaengsub C, Charupoonphol P. Factors influencing life happiness among elderly female in Rayong province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92 Suppl 7:S8–S12.
25. Oh SY, Park SN. The changes of self-esteem and leadership during two years in nursing students. J Korean Acad Soc Nurs Educ 2010;16:186–193.
26. Rogenberg M. In: Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1965.
27. Schlein A, Guerney BG. In: Relationship enhancement. Sanfrancisco, CA: Josey-Bass; 1971.
28. Seligman MEP. In: Kim IJPositive psychology. Anyang, Kyunggido: Mulpure; 2009.
29. Song JH. In: Influences of college entrance exam stress, social support, and optimism-pessimism on high school students' maladjustment. Gwangju: Chonnam National University; 2006.
Unpublished master's thesis.
30. Sung MH. The relationships between peer attachment, self-esteem and adjustment to college life in female college students. J Korean Acad Public Health Nurs 2008;22:84–96.