Journal List > J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs > v.20(1) > 1057892

Sohn: The Effects of the Peer Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Program for Middle School Students



This study was done to evaluate the effects of the peer suicide prevention gatekeeper program for use with middle school students.


The research design was a quasi-experimental research of a nonequivalent control group. The gatekeeper program was used as the experimental treatment with the students from May 14 to June 11, 2010. The 54 research participants were assigned to the experimental (23) or control (31) group. The gatekeeper program was administered four times to the experimental group. Data analysis was done with SPSS 12.0 for t-test and ANCOVA.


There were significant changes in the level of problem solving competence. There were no significant changes in the level of depression, and suicidal ideation.


These results indicate that the Gatekeeper program is an effective nursing intervention to increase the level of problem solving competence in middle school students.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1

Study design.

Table 1

Content of Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Program

Table 2

Homogeneity Test for General Characteristics between Experimental and Control Groups (N=54)

Table 3

Homogeneity Test for Dependent Variables before Gatekeeper Program between Experimental and Control Groups (N=54)

Table 4

Comparison of the Variables between Experimental and Control Groups


Exp.=experimental group; Cont.=control group.



This work was supported by Hanseo University Research Fund 2010.


1. Beck AT, Kovacs M, Weissman A. Assessment of suicide intention: The scale for suicide ideation. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1979; 47:343–352.
2. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961; 4:561–571.
3. CDC-a. Suicide prevention. 2010. 9. 1. Retrieved September 1, 2010. from the CDC Web site:
4. CDC-b. School gatekeeper training. 2010. 9. 1. Retrieved September 1, 2010. from the CDC Web site:
5. Gould MS, Kramer RA. Youth suicide prevention. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2001; 31:6–31.
6. Hennig CW, Crabtree CR, Baum D. Mental health CPR: Peer contracting as a response to potential suicide in adolescents. Arch Suicide Res. 1998; 4:169–187.
7. Heppner PP, Peterson CH. The development and implications of a personal problem-solving inventory. J Couns Psychol. 1982; 29:66–75.
8. Hong YS. The effects of life stress and psychosocial resources for adolescent suicidal behaviors. Seoul: Yonsei University;2004. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
9. Kalafat J, Elias M. Adolescents's experience with and response to suicidal peers. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1992; 22:315–321.
10. Kalafat J, Elias M. An evaluation of a school-based suicide awareness intervention. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1994; 24:224–233.
11. Kim KH. The effects of the respect for life program for middle school students with suicidal risk-focused on selfesteem, suicide probability, coping, problem solving capability. Seoul: Sungkyunkwan University;2008. Unpublished master's thesis.
12. Kim KH, Chun MH. Study on the teenage suicide. J Korean Soc Child Welf. 2000; 9:127–152.
13. Korean Statistical Information Service [KOSIS]. 2010 Adolescent statistics. 2010. 9. 1. Retrieved September 1, 2010. from the KOSIS Web site:
14. Korea Youth Counseling Institute. Adolescent suicide prevention program and interventive measures. Seoul: Author;2008.
15. Lee CS, Kweon YR, Kim SJ, Choi BS. The effect of suicide prevention program on depression, suicidal ideation, and problem solving ability on middle school students. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2007; 16:337–347.
16. Lee SY. An exploratory study for the development of peer-helper gatekeeper programs for adolescent suicide prevention. Korean J Youth Couns. 2008; 16(2):17–31.
17. Lee SY, Choi EY, Kim CK. Effectiveness of a reality therapy-based group counseling program on the reduction of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation. Korean J Youth Stud. 2005; 12(2):141–163.
18. Lee Y, Song J. A study of the reliability and the validity of the BDI, SDS, and MMPI-D scales. Korean J Clin Psychol. 1991; 10(1):98–113.
19. Lewis MW, Lewis AC. Peer helping programs: Helper role, supervisor training, and suicidal behavior. J Couns Dev. 1996; 74:307–313.
20. Park HS. Validation of a path model on adolescents' suicidal ideation and violent behavior. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2007; 37:835–843.
21. Public Law 108-355. Regislative history: Garrett Lee Memorial Act. Congressional Record. 2004. 150:p. 455.
22. Seroczynski AD, Jacquez FM, Cole DA. Depression and suicide during adolescence. In : Adams GR, Berzonsky MD, editors. Blackwell Handbook of Adolescence. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing;2006. p. 550–572.
23. Shin MS, Park KB, Oh KJ, Kim ZS. A study of suicidal ideation among high school students: The structural relation among depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. Korean J Clin Psychol. 1990; 9(1):1–19.
24. Sohn JN. A study on model construction to prevent impulsive suicidal ideation among adolescents. J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009; 18:418–430.
25. Statistics. Report of social study. 2010. 9. 1. Retrieved September 1, 2010. from the Statistics Web site:
26. Steinhausen HC, Winkler Metzke CW. The impact of suicidal ideation in preadolescence, adolescence, and young adulthood on psychosocial functioning and psychopathology in young adulthood. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004; 110:438–445.
27. Stuart C, Waalen JK, Haelstromm E. Many helping hearts: An evaluation of peer gatekeeper training in suicide risk assessment. Death Stud. 2003; 27(4):321–333.
28. Suicide Prevention Resource Center [SPRC]. Comparison table of suicide prevention gatekeeper training programs. 2010. 9. 1. Retrieved September 1, 2010. from the SPRC Web site:
29. Tierney RJ. Suicide intervention in training evaluation: A preliminary report. Crisis. 1994; 15:69–76.
30. Wyman PA, Brown CH, Inman J, Cross W, Schmeelk-Cone K, Guo J, et al. Randomized trial of a gatekeeper program for suicide prevention: 1-year impact on secondary school staff. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008; 76:104–115.
Similar articles