Journal List > Korean J Schizophr Res > v.16(2) > 1057795

Korean J Schizophr Res. 2013 Oct;16(2):86-92. Korean.
Published online October 31, 2013.
Copyright © 2013 Korean Society for Schizophrenia
Relations of Self-Esteem with Paranoia in Healthy Controls, Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis and with Recent Onset Schizophrenia
Hui-Woo Yoon, MD,1 Yun Young Song, MD,1,2 Jee In Kang, MD, PhD,1,2 and Suk Kyoon An, MD, PhD1,2
1Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Address for correspondence: Suk Kyoon An, Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 119 Gyeongchung-daero 1926beon-gil, Gwangju 464-110, Korea. Tel: 031-760-9404, Fax: 031-761-7582, Email:
Received July 17, 2013; Revised September 11, 2013; Accepted September 13, 2013.



Some emotional components, such as self-esteem, depression and anxiety, have been reported to be associated with paranoia in non-clinical population and schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between self-esteem and paranoia in healthy controls, in ultra-high risk for psychosis and schizophrenia patients.


34 subjects with recent onset schizophrenia, 36 subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis, and 44 healthy volunteers participated in this study. A detailed assessment was made of the paranoia, self-esteem, depression, and anxiety.


In all three groups, there were a negative correlation between paranoia and self-esteem, and positive correlations between paranoia and depression and anxiety. In healthy control, lower self-esteem showed a trend to predict higher paranoia, and in ultra-high risk for psychosis, this trend tern on statistically significant level, and in recent onset schizophrenia group, this correlation was disappeared.


The individual who have lower self-esteem showed higher paranoia tendency under delusional level, but after formation of persecutory delusion, the tendency was disappeared. This result supports the hypothesis that persecutory delusions are a defense against negative affective process.

Keywords: Paranoia; Self-esteem; Depression; Anxiety


Table 1
Demographic and clinical profiles of normal control, UHR for psychosis, and early schizophrenia patients
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Table 2
Intercorrelation between paranoia scale and other variables
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Table 3
Multiple linear regression analysis of paranoia scale score with other variables
Click for larger image

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