Journal List > Korean J Schizophr Res > v.16(2) > 1057794

Lee, Park, Koo, Ko, Kang, and Song: The Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Apathy Evaluation Scale and its Application in Patients with Schizophrenia



Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) is one of the most frequently used scales to evaluate apathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the AES (K-AES) and to apply the K-AES in examining the characteristics of apathy in the Korean patients with schizophrenia.


129 healthy people and 29 patients with schizophrenia have been evaluated using the K-AES, Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS), and the Beck‘s Depression Inventory (BDI). Split-half reliability and internal consistency were evaluated and factor analysis and correlation analysis was conducted. Between-group comparison was conducted using independent sample t-tests.


K-AES showed good reliability and validity. Factor analysis confirmed 3 factors, which represented interest and drive, initiative, self-awareness and self-assessment. Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher K-AES and BDI scores than the healthy group. K-AES scores in patients with schizophrenia were significantly correlated with the PAS score, but did not correlate with SAS and BDI scores.


This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the K-AES. Our findings also suggest that the K-AES may be a reliable instrument in assessing apathy as a negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia.


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Table 1.
Demographic characteristics of the healthy group and the patient group
Variable Healthy (N=129) Schizophrenia (N=29) t/χ
Age (year) 22.6±4.8 40.6±9.0 -10.3
Gender 1.7
 Male 58 (45) 17 (58.6)
 Female 71 (55) 12 (41.4)
Education 138.5
 Incompleted high school 0 (0) 3 (10.3)
 Completed high school 0 (0) 23 (79.4)
 Attending college/college dropouts s 96 (74.4) 3 (10.3)
 Graduated from college 33 (25.6) 0 (0)

Means and standard deviations or numbers of subjects are presented.

: p<0.05

Table 2.
Factor analysis of K-AES in the healthy group (N=129)
Item Factor loading
Factor 1 (ID) Factor 2 (IN) Factor 3 (SS)
4. 나는 새로운 경험을 하는 것에 관심이 있다. 0.73 0.07 0.22
9. 나는 내가 흥미 있어 하는 일들을 하며 시간을 보낸다. 0.71 0.11 0.03
5. 나는 새로운 것을 배우는 것에 흥미가 있다. 0.70 0.21 0.10
1. 나는 무엇인가에 흥미가 있다. 0.62 0.05 0.02
18. 나는 의욕이 있다. 0.54 0.42 0.21
3. 스스로 뭔가 시작하는 것은 내게 중요하다. 0.53 0.33 0.20
17. 나는 주도적이다. 0.48 0.42 0.01
6. 나는 어떤 것에도 적은 노력을 기울인다. 0.22 0.11 0.22
16. 그날 일을 마치는 것은 나에게 매우 중요하다. 0.01 0.69 0.27
8. 맡은 일을 끝까지 해내는 것이 나에게 중요하다. 0.17 0.61 0.04
2. 나는 할 일을 그 날 해낸다. 0.25 0.61 0.05
10. 매일 누군가가 나에게 할 일을 말해줘야 한다. 0.20 0.56 0.01
13. 친구들과 어울리는 것은 내게 중요하다. 0.20 0.17 0.72
12. 친구들이 있다. 0.23 0.11 0.69
14. 좋은 일이 있을 때에는 신이 난다. 0.26 0.01 0.67
7. 나는 삶에 대해 강렬한 태도로 임한다. 0.32 0.49 0.50
15. 나는 나의 문제를 정확하게 알고 있다. 0.01 0.01 0.44
11. 나는 내 문제에 대해 내가 걱정해야 할 정도보다는 덜 걱정한다. 0.17 0.01 0.37
Eigen value 4.7 1.6 1.6
Explained variance (%) 26.3 9.1 8.9

ID : Interest and Drive, IN : Initiative, SS : Social interest and Self-assessment

Table 3.
Pearson's correlation coefficients of K-AES and other scales in the healthy group (N=129)
ASP 0.36∗∗
ASS 0.32∗∗ 0.41∗∗
BDI 0.27∗∗ 0.19 0.30∗∗
BDI-S 0.09 0.11 0.21∗∗ 0.46∗∗

: p<0.05,

∗∗ : p<0.01. K-AES : Korean version of Apathy Evaluation Scale, ASP : Physical Anhedonia Scale, ASS : Social Anhedonia Scale, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory, BDI-S : Somatic components of Beck Depression Inventory

Table 4.
Comparisons of means and standard errors of the K-AES and other scales between the healthy group and the patient group
Healthy (N=129) Schizophrenia (N=29) t (df) F (df)
K-AES 35.5±5.9 40.9± 8.2 -4.0 (156)∗∗ 4.5 (1)∗∗
ASP 12.9±7.9 23.7± 9.2 -6.4 (156)∗∗ 13.3 (1)∗∗
ASS 10.2±6.1 18.0± 5.7 -6.2 (156)∗∗ 18.7 (1)∗∗
BDI 9.3±7.7 24.1±13.6 -5.6 (32.2)∗∗ 17.9 (1)∗∗

∗∗ : statistically significant at p<0.05,

: ANCOVA adjusting for age and years of education. K-AES : Korean version of Apathy Evaluation Scale, ASP : Physical Anhedonia Scale, ASS : Social Anhedonia Scale, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory

Table 5.
Pearson's correlation coefficients of the K-AES and other scales in patients with schizophrenia (N=29)
ASP 0.55∗∗
ASS 0.31 0.66∗∗
BDI 0.25 0.34 0.26

∗∗ : p<0.01. K-AES : Korean version of Apathy Evaluation Scale, ASP : Physical Anhedonia Scale, ASS : Social Anhedonia Scale, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory

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