Journal List > J Korean Acad Oral Health > v.39(4) > 1057661

J Korean Acad Oral Health. 2015 Dec;39(4):273-279. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2015.
Copyright © 2015 by Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
Assessment of the erosive potential of carbonated waters
Sang-Kyeom Kim,1,2 Seok-Woo Park,1,2 Si-Mook Kang,1,2 Ho-Keun Kwon,1,2 and Baek-Il Kim1,2,3
1Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
2BK 21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
3Oral Science Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Corresponding Author: Baek-Il Kim. Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2228-3070, Fax: +82-2-392-2926, Email:
Received October 01, 2015; Revised November 04, 2015; Accepted November 09, 2015.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



The aims of this study were to determine the erosive potential of several carbonated waters and to confirm the availability of a simple ISO protocol for screening the erosive potential of drinks.


A total of six carbonated waters were tested. Three products (Lemon-Sparkling water, Seagram, and Trevi) were domestic, and the other three (Perrier, San Pellegrino, and Rosbacher) were imported. Two kinds of carbonated drinks (Coca-Cola and Sprite) were used as controls. The erosive potential of each drink was assessed by measuring the initial pH (pHI), the final pH after degassing of carbon dioxide (pHF), and the titratable acidity to pH 5.5 (TA5.5) and 7.0 (TA7.0). The pH changes (ΔpH) caused by the addition of drinks to screening solutions were calculated according to the ISO protocol for evaluating the erosive potential of oral rinses.


The overall erosive potential of the carbonated waters was lower than that of the control drinks. The pHI and pHF of the carbonated waters ranged from 3.94 to 5.84 and from 5.07 to 7.88, respectively. The Lemon-Sparkling water showed the highest erosive potential among the carbonated waters, having the lowest pH (3.94) and the highest TA5.5 (1.67 ml). The ΔpH of all tested drinks ranged from ―1.00 to 0.23. Also, the tendency of erosive potential measured by ΔpH was similar to that measured by TA5.5.


The carbonated waters tested in this study had a lower erosive potential than did the carbonated drinks. However, the erosive potential of domestic products was higher than that of imported products. The results of the ISO screening test could reflect the influence of the acid content as well as the pH of drinks. Therefore, this protocol could also be conveniently applied to evaluate the erosive potential of various drinks.

Keywords: Carbonated water; Erosive potential; Screening test; Tooth erosion


Fig. 1
The results of screening test for erosive capacity of drinks with Ca-PO4 solution. pH, the value after subtraction of initial pH of Ca-PO4 solution from pH of Ca-PO4 solution after addition of drinks. Lemon-S.W: Lemon-Sparkling water; S.pellegrino: San pellegrino. Each test was conducted in quadruplicate with new drinks.
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Table 1
Control drinks (Carbonated drinks) and experimental drinks (carbonated waters) used in this study
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Table 2
The pH values of control beverages and experimental carbonated waters used in this study
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Table 3
The amount (ml) of 1 M NaOH required to raise the pH of each drink to 5.5 and 7.0
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Table 4
The rating of erosive potential of drinks in screening test with Ca-PO4 solution and titratable acidity to pH 5.5
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