Journal List > J Korean Acad Oral Health > v.39(4) > 1057661

J Korean Acad Oral Health. 2015 Dec;39(4):273-279. Korean.
Published online December 31, 2015.  https://doi.org/10.11149/jkaoh.2015.39.4.273
Copyright © 2015 by Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health
Assessment of the erosive potential of carbonated waters
Sang-Kyeom Kim,1,2 Seok-Woo Park,1,2 Si-Mook Kang,1,2 Ho-Keun Kwon,1,2 and Baek-Il Kim1,2,3
1Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
2BK 21 PLUS Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
3Oral Science Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Corresponding Author: Baek-Il Kim. Department of Preventive Dentistry & Public Oral Health, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2228-3070, Fax: +82-2-392-2926, Email: drkbi@yuhs.ac
Received October 01, 2015; Revised November 04, 2015; Accepted November 09, 2015.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Abstract

Objectives

The aims of this study were to determine the erosive potential of several carbonated waters and to confirm the availability of a simple ISO protocol for screening the erosive potential of drinks.

Methods

A total of six carbonated waters were tested. Three products (Lemon-Sparkling water, Seagram, and Trevi) were domestic, and the other three (Perrier, San Pellegrino, and Rosbacher) were imported. Two kinds of carbonated drinks (Coca-Cola and Sprite) were used as controls. The erosive potential of each drink was assessed by measuring the initial pH (pHI), the final pH after degassing of carbon dioxide (pHF), and the titratable acidity to pH 5.5 (TA5.5) and 7.0 (TA7.0). The pH changes (ΔpH) caused by the addition of drinks to screening solutions were calculated according to the ISO protocol for evaluating the erosive potential of oral rinses.

Results

The overall erosive potential of the carbonated waters was lower than that of the control drinks. The pHI and pHF of the carbonated waters ranged from 3.94 to 5.84 and from 5.07 to 7.88, respectively. The Lemon-Sparkling water showed the highest erosive potential among the carbonated waters, having the lowest pH (3.94) and the highest TA5.5 (1.67 ml). The ΔpH of all tested drinks ranged from ―1.00 to 0.23. Also, the tendency of erosive potential measured by ΔpH was similar to that measured by TA5.5.

Conclusions

The carbonated waters tested in this study had a lower erosive potential than did the carbonated drinks. However, the erosive potential of domestic products was higher than that of imported products. The results of the ISO screening test could reflect the influence of the acid content as well as the pH of drinks. Therefore, this protocol could also be conveniently applied to evaluate the erosive potential of various drinks.

Keywords: Carbonated water; Erosive potential; Screening test; Tooth erosion

Figures


Fig. 1
The results of screening test for erosive capacity of drinks with Ca-PO4 solution. pH, the value after subtraction of initial pH of Ca-PO4 solution from pH of Ca-PO4 solution after addition of drinks. Lemon-S.W: Lemon-Sparkling water; S.pellegrino: San pellegrino. Each test was conducted in quadruplicate with new drinks.
Click for larger image

Tables


Table 1
Control drinks (Carbonated drinks) and experimental drinks (carbonated waters) used in this study
Click for larger image


Table 2
The pH values of control beverages and experimental carbonated waters used in this study
Click for larger image


Table 3
The amount (ml) of 1 M NaOH required to raise the pH of each drink to 5.5 and 7.0
Click for larger image


Table 4
The rating of erosive potential of drinks in screening test with Ca-PO4 solution and titratable acidity to pH 5.5
Click for larger image

References
1. Eccles JD. Dental erosion of nonindustrial origin. a clinical survey and classification. J Prosthet Dent 1979;42:649–653.
2. Nunn JH. Prevalence of dental erosion and the implications for oral health. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:156–161.
3. Jensdottir T, Arnadottir IB, Thorsdottir I, Bardow A, Gudmundsson K, Theodors A, et al. Relationship between dental erosion, soft drink consumption, and gastroesophageal reflux among Icelanders. Clin Oral Investig 2004;8:91–96.
4. Jensdottir T, Bardow A, Holbrook P. Properties and modification of soft drinks in relation to their erosive potential in vitro. J Dent 2005;33:569–575.
5. Zero DT. Etiology of dental erosion-extrinsic factors. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:162–177.
6. Kim BR, Min JH, Kwon HK, Kim BI. Analysis of the erosive effects of children's beverages using a pH-cycling model. J Korean Acad Oral Health 2013;37:141–146.
7. Ehlen LA, Marshall TA, Qian F, Wefel JS, Warren JJ. Acidic beverages increase the risk of in vitro tooth erosion. Nutr Res 2008;28:299–303.
8. Salas MM, Nascimento GG, Vargas-Ferreira F, Tarquinio SB, Huysmans MC, Demarco FF. Diet influenced tooth erosion prevalence in children and adolescents: Results of a meta-analysis and metaregression. J Dent 2015;43:865–875.
9. Parry J, Shaw L, Arnaud MJ, Smith AJ. Investigation of mineral waters and soft drinks in relation to dental erosion. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:766–772.
10. Brown CJ, Smith G, Shaw L, Parry J, Smith AJ. The erosive potential of flavoured sparkling water drinks. Int J Paediatr Dent 2007;17:86–91.
11. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. 2014 Production of food and food additives. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2014. pp. 125.
12. Edwards M, Creanor SL, Foye RH, Gilmour WH. Buffering capacities of soft drinks: the potential influence on dental erosion. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:923–927.
13. Lussi A, Jaggi T, Scharer S. The influence of different factors on in vitro enamel erosion. Caries Res 1993;27:387–393.
14. Lussi A, Megert B, Shellis RP, Wang X. Analysis of the erosive effect of different dietary substances and medications. Br J Nutr 2012;107:252–262.
15. Hara AT, Zero DT. Analysis of the erosive potential of calciumcontaining acidic beverages. Eur J Oral Sci 2008;116:60–65.
16. Jensdottir T, Holbrook P, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Bardow A. Immediate erosive potential of cola drinks and orange juices. J Dent Res 2006;85:226–230.
17. Schmuck B. In: Evaluation of three assessment methods: screening for dental erosive capacity. IADR; 2008.
18. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 28888: 2013 Dentistry-screening method for erosion potential of oral rinses on dental hard tissues. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization; 2013. pp. 1-5.
19. Creanor S, Ferguson J, Foye R. Comparison of the cariogenic potential of caloric and noncaloric carbonated drinks. J Dent Res 1995:873–873.
20. Barbour ME, Lussi A. Erosion in relation to nutrition and the environment. Monogr Oral Sci 2014;25:143–154.
21. Shellis RP, Barbour ME, Jesani A, Lussi A. Effects of buffering properties and undissociated acid concentration on dissolution of dental enamel in relation to pH and acid type. Caries Res 2013;47:601–611.
22. Grenby TH. Lessening dental erosive potential by product modification. Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104:221–228.
23. West NX, Hughes JA, Parker DM, Moohan M, Addy M. Development of low erosive carbonated fruit drinks 2. evaluation of an experimental carbonated blackcurrant drink compared to a conventional carbonated drink. J Dent 2003;31:361–365.
24. Hughes JA, West NX, Parker DM, Newcombe RG, Addy M. Development and evaluation of a low erosive blackcurrant juice drink in vitro and in situ. 1. Comparison with orange juice. J Dent 1999;27:285–289.
25. Larsen MJ, Nyvad B. Enamel erosion by some soft drinks and orange juices relative to their pH, buffering effect and contents of calcium phosphate. Caries Res 1999;33:81–87.
26. Min JH, Kwon HK, Kim BI. The addition of nano-sized hydroxyapatite to a sports drink to inhibit dental erosion-in vitro study using bovine enamel. J Dent 2011;39:629–635.
27. Min JH, Kwon HK, Kim BI. Prevention of dental erosion of a sports drink by nano-sized hydroxyapatite in situ study. Int J Paediatr Dent 2015;25:61–69.
28. American Dental Association Foundation. ISO collaborative protocol: Evaluation of simplified method to estimate relative erosive potential of oral rinses. Chicago: American Dental Association Foundation; 2007. pp. 1-4.