Journal List > J Korean Acad Oral Health > v.39(4) > 1057661

Kim, Park, Kang, Kwon, and Kim: Assessment of the erosive potential of carbonated waters



The aims of this study were to determine the erosive potential of several carbonated waters and to confirm the availability of a simple ISO protocol for screening the erosive potential of drinks.


A total of six carbonated waters were tested. Three products (Lemon-Sparkling water, Seagram, and Trevi) were domestic, and the other three (Perrier, San Pellegrino, and Rosbacher) were imported. Two kinds of carbonated drinks (Coca-Cola and Sprite) were used as controls. The erosive potential of each drink was assessed by measuring the initial pH (pHI), the final pH after degassing of carbon dioxide (pHF), and the titratable acidity to pH 5.5 (TA5.5) and 7.0 (TA7.0). The pH changes (∆pH) caused by the addition of drinks to screening solutions were calculated according to the ISO protocol for evaluating the erosive potential of oral rinses.


The overall erosive potential of the carbonated waters was lower than that of the control drinks. The pHI and pHF of the carbonated waters ranged from 3.94 to 5.84 and from 5.07 to 7.88, respectively. The Lemon-Sparkling water showed the highest erosive potential among the carbonated waters, having the lowest pH (3.94) and the highest TA5.5 (1.67 ml). The ∆pH of all tested drinks ranged from ―1.00 to 0.23. Also, the tendency of erosive potential measured by ∆pH was similar to that measured by TA5.5.


The carbonated waters tested in this study had a lower erosive potential than did the carbonated drinks. However, the erosive potential of domestic products was higher than that of imported products. The results of the ISO screening test could reflect the influence of the acid content as well as the pH of drinks. Therefore, this protocol could also be conveniently applied to evaluate the erosive potential of various drinks.


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Fig. 1.
The results of screening test for erosive capacity of drinks with Ca-PO4 solution. pH, the value after subtraction of initial pH of Ca-PO4 solution from pH of Ca-PO4 solution after addition of drinks. Lemon-S.W: Lemon-Sparkling water; S.pellegrino: San pellegrino. Each test was conducted in quadruplicate with new drinks.
Table 1.
Control drinks (Carbonated drinks) and experimental drinks (carbonated waters) used in this study
Brand name Flavour Manufacturer Ingredients
Sprite* Lime, Lemon Coca-Cola Korea Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, White sugar, Synthetic favoring substance,
Citric acid, Trisodium citrate, Propylene glycol
Coca-cola* - Coca-Cola Korea Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, High fructose corn syrup, White sugar, caramel, Coloring matter, Phosphoric acid, Natural favoring substance, Caffein
Lemon-Sparkling water Lemon CU, Namyang F&B Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, Natural lemon flavoring
Trevi Lemon Lotte Chilsung Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, Natural lemon flavoring
Seagram Lemon Coca-Cola Korea Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, Natural lemon flavoring
Perrier Lemon Nestle Waters supply sud Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, Natural lemon flavoring
San pellegrino - Nestle Waters supply sud Water, Carbonate dioxide
Rosbacher Lemon Hassia Waters international Purified water, Carbonate dioxide, Natural lemon flavoring

* Control drinks.

Experimental drinks.

Table 2.
The pH values of control beverages and experimental carbonated waters used in this study
Drinks pHI pHF
Mean SD Mean SD
Sprite 3.17 0.03 2.94 0.10
Coca-cola 2.51 0.12 2.30 0.04
Lemon-Sparkling water 3.94 0.10 5.07 0.12
Trevi 4.53 0.09 6.82 0.05
Seagram 4.18 0.03 6.03 0.08
Perrier 5.26 0.05 6.90 0.05
San pellegrino 5.17 0.02 7.88 0.06
Rosbacher 5.84 0.10 7.73 0.08

pHI: the initial pH value measured immediately after opening drinks; pHF: the final pH value measured after CO2 degassing. Each test was conducted in triplicate with new drinks.

Table 3.
The amount (ml) of 1 M NaOH required to raise the pH of each drink to 5.5 and 7.0
Drinks TA5.5 TA7.0
Mean SD Mean SD
Sprite 3.83 0.24 12.17 0.47
Coca-cola 2.50 0.00 10.17 0.47
Lemon-Sparkling water 1.67 0.24 7.50 0.41
Trevi 1.50 0.00 8.50 0.82
Seagram 1.50 0.00 9.17 1.25
Perrier 0.67 0.24 8.50 0.71
San pellegrino 0.33 0.24 7.83 0.47
Rosbacher 0.00 0.00 9.33 0.85

TA5.5: titratable acidity to pH 5.5; TA7.0: titratable acidity to pH 7.0. Each test was conducted in triplicate with new drinks.

Table 4.
The rating of erosive potential of drinks in screening test with Ca-PO4 solution and titratable acidity to pH 5.5
Drinks (pH) ∆pH TA5.5
Sprite (3.17) ―1.00 (0.04) 3.83 (0.24)
Coca-cola (2.51) ―0.92 (0.02) 2.50 (0.00)
Lemon-Sparkling water (3.94) ) ―0.50 (0.03) 1.67 (0.24)
Trevi (4.53) ―0.46 (0.09) 1.50 (0.00)
Seagram (4.18) ―0.43 (0.01) 1.50 (0.00)
San pellegrino (5.17) ―0.23 (0.03) 0.67 (0.24)
Perrier (5.26) ―0.08 (0.02) 0.33 (0.24)
Rosbacher (5.84) 0.23 (0.02) 0.00 (0.00)

Mean values (standard deviations) of erosive potential from 8 tested drinks TA5.5: titratable acidity to pH 5.5; ∆pH: the value after subtraction of initial pH of Ca-PO4 solution from pH of Ca-PO4 solution after addition o drinks.

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