Journal List > Korean J Sports Med > v.33(1) > 1054541

Korean J Sports Med. 2015 Jun;33(1):13-18. Korean.
Published online June 04, 2015.
Copyright © 2015 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine
Prevalence, Characteristics of Ear Deformity and Treatment Tendency for Auricular Hematoma in Elite Wrestlers
Jin-Su Kim,1 Yong-Up Sin,2 Yong-Pan Koo,2 and Sang-Hoon Kim3
1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Martial Art, Yong-In University, Yongin, Korea.
3Sports Medicine and Science Team, Korea Paralympic Committee, Seoul, Korea.

Correspondence: Sang-Hoon Kim. Sports Medicine and Science Team, Korea Paralympic Committee, 167 Seokdong-ro, Sindun-myeon, Icheon 467-842, Korea. Tel: +82-31-526-9451, Fax: +82-31-631-8327, Email:
Received August 04, 2014; Revised May 17, 2015; Accepted May 26, 2015.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Wrestlers has frequently injured on his ear by friction or hitting. If the ear injury like hematoma did not treat appropriately, it should be deform to disfigured outer shape. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of ear deformity with elite wrestlers. We took the photo with elite 58 male wrestlers' ears. We surveyed the carrier of elite player, duration of training time, ear injury history, treatment history and satisfactory scale of his ear shape. The characteristics of ear shape were classified by Yotuyanagi classification. 44 wrestlers has deformity of his ear in elite wrestlers (76%, 44/58). Right side ear deformity is 50 cases, bilaterally involvement is one case. Microtia was 11 (24%), ear protrusion was 15 (33%) cases. Yotuyanagi type IB was 13 (29%) cases that deformity extending from helix to antihelix. Type IIA was 12 (27%) cases that deformity with a substantial change with good structural integrity in outline of the ear. Acute ear injury was treated with simple icing (33 cases, 56%), aspiration and compression (6 cases, 10%). 34 wrestlers (77%) dissatisfied his own ear shape. 10% of acute ear injuries treat appropriately in domestic elite male wrestlers. 76% of the wrestlers has an ear deformity and dissatisfaction.

Keywords: Acquired ear deformity; Hematoma; Wresting; Acute injury


Fig. 1
(A) Microtia is morphologically smaller than normal sized ear. (B) Prominent ear has protruded soft tissue or mass like bump.
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Fig. 2
Yotsuyanagi classification has shown by the picture.
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Fig. 3
Frequent involved zone of cauliflower ear.
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Table 1
Relationship between normal ear wrestlers and deformed ear wrestlers
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Table 2
Relationship between Yotuyanagi classification with age, height, weight, exercise carrier, and duration of training per week
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Table 3
Frequently involved zone of cauliflower ear
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Table 4
Characteristic of cauliflower ear deformity in Korean elite wrestlers
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