Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs Adm > v.24(1) > 1051960

Park and Kim: Perception of Importance of Patient Safety Management, Patient Safety Culture and Safety Performance in Hospital Managerial Performance of Hospital Nurses



The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of perception of importance of patient safety management, patient safety culture and safety performance on managerial performance of hospital nurses.


A cross-sectional design was used, with a convenience sample of 393 nurses from seven general hospitals. Data were collected through self-evaluation questionnaires. The data collection period was April and May, 2016 and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, One-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression with the SPSS/WIN 24.0 program.


There were significantly positive relationships (p<.001) between hospital managerial performances and perception of importance of patient safety management (r=.36), patient safety culture (r=.51), safety performance (r=.44). Factors influencing hospital managerial performances in the hospital nurses were identified as patient safety culture (β=.34), type of hospital (advanced general hospital) (β=.31), and safety performance (β=.20). The explanation power of this regression model was 39.0% and it was statistically significant (F=183.82, p<.001).


The results from this study can be used to develop further management strategies for enhancement of hospital managerial performances.


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Table 1.
Differences in Hospital Managerial Performances by Characteristics (N=393)
Variables Categories n(%) M±SD t or F p
Age (year) ≤25 92 (23.4) 5.10±0.67 1.45 .228
26~30 126 (32.1) 5.00±0.78
31~35 74 (18.8) 5.05±0.87
36~40 36 (9.2) 4.85±0.81
≥41 65 (16.5) 5.20±0.71
Gender Male 11 (2.8) 4.89±0.41 -0.74 .462
Female 382 (97.2) 5.06±0.77
Marital status Single 236 (60.1) 5.05±0.76 0.16 .873
Married 157 (39.9) 5.06±0.77
Education level 3-year college 82 (20.9) 5.07±0.76 0.03 .973
Bachelor 238 (60.5) 5.05±0.75
≥Master 73 (18.6) 5.06±0.85
Work hours per work ≤40 240 (61.1) 5.10±0.78 1.44 .150
≥41 153 (38.9) 4.98±0.74
Shift pattern Three shifts 331 (84.2) 5.10±0.77 2.43 .015
Day shift only 62 (15.8) 4.84±0.73
Total work experience in present hospital (year) <5 167 (42.5) 5.04±0.73 0.46 .633
5~9 103 (26.2) 5.11±0.78
≥10 123 (31.3) 5.02±0.81
Work experience in present unit (year) <1 77 (19.6) 4.96±0.65 1.30 .274
1~4 223 (56.7) 5.05±0.77
≥5 93 (23.7) 5.15±0.84
Accreditation Yes 353 (89.8) 5.07±0.77 1.22 .223
No 40 (10.2) 4.91±0.71
Hospital type Advanced general hospital 177 (45.0) 5.32±0.75 6.54 <.001
General hospital 216 (55.0) 4.83±0.74
Safety accident reports (average monthly frequency) 0 161 (41.0) 4.98±0.86 1.38 .253
1~2 212 (53.9) 5.11±0.68
≥3 20 (5.1) 5.09±0.83
Table 2.
Degree of Patient Safety-related Factors and Hospital Managerial Performances (N=393)
Variables Categories M±SD Min~Max Range
Perception of importance of patient safety management Concern 3.88±0.55 2.43~5.00 1~5
Confidence 3.81±0.56 2.40~5.00
Will 3.78±0.54 2.40~5.00
Recognition 4.32±0.50 2.50~5.00
Total 3.92±0.46 2.76~5.00
Patient Safety culture Leadership 3.86±0.53 2.00~5.00 1~5
Teamwork 3.83±0.49 2.33~5.00
Patient safety knowledge and attitude 3.94±0.50 2.57~5.00
Patient safety policy and procedure 3.74±0.63 1.25~5.00
Non-punitive environment 3.22±0.70 1.00~5.00
Patient safety improvement system 3.45±0.60 1.00~5.00
Patient safety priority 2.96±0.65 1.00~4.67
Total 3.67±0.41 2.37~5.00
Safety performance Safety compliance 3.65±0.57 2.00~5.00 1~5
Safety participation 3.64±0.56 1.67~5.00
Total 3.64±0.52 2.17~5.00
Hospital managerial performances Financial performance 5.33±0.86 2.50~7.00 1~7
Non-financial performance 4.83±0.94 1.60~7.00
Total 5.05±0.76 2.11~7.00
Table 3.
Correlation of Variables (N=393)
Variables PI-PSM Patient safety culture Safety performance
r (p) r (p) r (p)
Patient safety culture .73 (<.001) 1
Safety performance .62 (<.001) .60 (<.001) 1
Hospital managerial performances .36 (<.001) .51 (<.001) .44 (<.001)

PI-PSM=Perception of importance on patient safety management.

Table 4.
Factors Influencing Hospital Managerial Performances (N=391)
Variables B SE β t p
(Constant) 1.15 0.28 4.16 <.001
Safety culture 0.71 0.09 .34 7.80 <.001
Working hospital type (advanced general hospital) 0.48 0.06 .31 7.86 <.001
Safety performance 0.29 0.07 .20 4.06 <.001
R2=.39, Adj. R2=.39, F=83.82, p<.001

Including variables in stepwise method: Safety culture, safety performance, working hospital type=dummy variable (advanced general hospital=1), SE=Standard error; Adj=Adjusted.

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