Journal List > J Korean Acad Nurs Adm > v.22(5) > 1051882

Park and Kim: Characteristics of Nursing and Caring Concepts Measured in Nursing Competencies or Caring Behaviors Tools



The purpose of the study was to identify characteristics of nursing and caring concepts measured by nursing competencies or caring behaviors tools for general nurses working in acute care hospitals.


Five major nursing literature databases were used to identify the relevant tools. The study included 19 nursing competencies tools with a total of 843 measurement items and 12 caring behaviors tools with 334 items. According to the International Council of Nurses (ICN)'s Competencies Framework and 8Cs suggested by Roach (1987) and Pusari (1998), the measurement items were classified by two researchers independently first and in agreement finally.


Competency of ‘key principles of care’ including sub-areas of the ICN Framework was most commonly found: on average 49.3% of nursing competencies items and 91.9% of caring behaviors items. 97.0% of the caring behaviors items were classified into one of six Cs: competence (27.5%), confidence (21.3%), compassion (17.1%), commitment (16.5%), communication (9.9%), or conscience (4.8%).


Nursing competencies tools were more likely to measure ‘what to do’ focusing on tasks, while caring behaviors tools were to measure ‘how to do’ focusing on nurses' attitudes or values. Nursing practices should be evaluated with both nursing competencies and caring behaviors tools, considering that nursing and caring were differently conceptualized in the quantitative tools.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Measurement Tools of Nursing Competencies or Caring Behaviors


Note. ㉠, Face/content validity; ㉡, Construct validity; ㉢, Convergent validity; ㉣, Discriminant validity; ㉤, Criterion-related validity; ㉥, Concurrent validity; ㉠, Contrast validity; ⓐ, Internal consistency (Cronbach's α); ⓑ, Item-total correlation; ⓒ, Inter-item correlation; ⓓ, Test-retest correlation; ⓔ, Inter-rater reliability.

Table 2

The ICN's Competencies Framework for General RNs and Examples of Item Classification


*Measurement tool's ID from Table 1

Table 3

8Cs' Meanings and Examples of Item Classification


*Measurement tool's ID from Table 1

Table 4

Classification of Nursing Competency or Caring Behavior Items according to the ICN Competencies Framework


Unit: n (%).

*Tool N3 includes 13 competencies but 18 items were used for classification because of some competencies were measured with more than one item.

Table 5

Classification of Caring Questionnaire Items according to the 8Cs



This paper was supported by Konkuk University.



References of the Measurement Instruments Included in the Study

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