Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.43(1) > 1043863

Korean J Nutr. 2010 Feb;43(1):79-85. Korean.
Published online February 28, 2010.
© 2010 The Korean Nutrition Society
Estimation of Sodium Intake of Adult Female by 24-Hour Urine Analysis, Dietary Records and Dish Frequency Questionnaire (DFQ 55)
Eun-Kyung Shin,1 Hye-Jin Lee,2 Jung-Jeung Lee,3 Moon-Young Ann,4 Sook-Me Son,5 and Yeon-Kyung Lee1
1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea.
2Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance, Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Seoul 122-701, Korea.
3Department of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu 700-712, Korea.
4Public Health Division, Daegu Metropolitan City, Daegu 700-714, Korea.
5Food Science & Nutrition, Catholic University, Bucheon 420-743, Korea.

To whom correspondence should be addressed. (Email: )
Received September 30, 2009; Revised December 01, 2009; Accepted February 02, 2010.


This study assesses the sodium intake of adults by 24-hour urine analysis, dietary records review and a food intake questionnaire. Subjects were 236 adult female in Daegu. The results are summarized as follows: Sodium intake as indicated by the 24-hour urine analysis was 5,805.4 ± 3836.8 mg. This was significantly higher than intake indicated by dietary records (4415.4 ± 1935.1 mg) and the dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ 55)(4293.5 ± 1526.5 mg). The results of the 24-hour urine analysis and DFQ 55 showed that sodium intake was higher for the 65-to-74-year-old age group than for other age groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Review of dietary records to examine typical sodium intake by food groups showed that 53.7% of the sodium consumed by subjects in all age groups came from seasonings and spices (2399.0 ± 1526.5 mg). The analysis of sodium intake by food groups using DFQ 55 showed 34.2% of their sodium came from consumption of kimchi (p < 0.001) and kimch, soup, stew and fish jorim accounted for 57.8% of total sodium intake. The results indicate positive correlation between age and sodium intake, as shown by the 24-hour urine analysis and food intake questionnaire (p < 0.05). Therefore, these results would be valuable as basic data for planning nutrition education for sodium intake reduction.

Keywords: sodium intake; 24-hour urine analysis; dietary record; dish frequency questionnaire


Table 1
Comparison of daily sodium intakes estimated by different methods
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Table 2
Mean sodium intake of adult female by food record method
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Table 3
Mean daily sodium intake of adult female by a dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ 55) method
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Table 4
Correlations among estimated sodium intakes of adult female by different methods
Click for larger image


This research was supported by 2006 National Health Promotion Fund.

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