Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.42(6) > 1043783

Kang, Choi, and Ro: A Comparative Study on the Diet Quality Evaluation and Blood Lipid Profiles in Adult Male Drinkers according to the Smoking


This study was carried out to compare the effect of smoking on dietary habits, nutrient intakes and blood lipid profiles in 173 adult male drinkers. Subjects were classified by two groups, alcohol-only and alcohol-smoking, based on their alcohol or smoking habits. The BMI of the alcohol-smoking group was significantly lower than those of alcohol-only group. In dietary habits, the alcohol-smoking group had higher irregular breakfast and dinner intakes than alcohol-only group (p < 0.05). Plant lipid intake of the alcohol-smoking group was higher than those of alcohol-only group (p < 0.05) and the vitamin C intake of the alcohol-smoking group was lower than those of alcohol-only group (p < 0.05). With regard to the diet quality evaluation of subjects, the alcohol-smoking group showed significantly lower values than alcohol-only group in the nutrient density of carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. Also, with regard to the index of nutrition quality (INQ) and the nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), the alcohol-smoking group showed significantly lower value than alcohol-only group in vitamin C. With these results, we found that the alcohol-smoking group had lower diet quality evaluation. The results of blood analysis showed that HDL-cholesterol in the alcohol-smoking group was significantly lower than that in the alcohol-only group. In conclusion, the alcohol-smoking group had greater health risk than the alcohol-only group. Particularly, alcohol-smoking caused irregular eating patterns and unbalanced nutrition intakes compared to alcohol-only and also changed blood composition as shown in the decrease of HDL-cholesterol. Besides, the index of coronary heart disease such as AI was higher in both groups suggesting that alcohol-only or alcohol-smoking cause health problems. Since there is the limiting point in which the comparative analysis of non-drinkers and non-smokers is unable to be performed in this study, further wide research is needed on that matter.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
General characteristics of subjects n (%)

*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01

Table 2
Physical characteristics of subjects

Each value is mean ± standard error

*: Significantly different at p < 0.05 by t-test

BMI: Body mass index (kg/m2)

Table 3
Dietary habits of subjects (n(%))

*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001

Table 4
Daily energy and nutrient intakes of subjects

Each value is mean ± standard error. *: Significantly different at p < 0.05 by t-test

Table 5
The percent of DRIs values of daily nutrient intakes in subjects

Each value is mean ± standard error. *: Significantly different at p < 0.05 by t-test. DRIs: Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (2005)

Table 6
Nutrient density for energy intake of subjects

Each value is mean ± standard error. *: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01 by t-test

Table 7
Blood lipid profiles of subjects

Each value is mean ± standard error

1) LDL-cholesterol = Total cholesterol - (Triglyceride/5+HDL - cholesterol) by Friedwald equation (1972)

2) AI: Atherogenic Index [(Total cholesterol - HDLcholesterol)/HDLcholesterol]

**: Significantly different at p < 0.01 by t-test

Table 8
Pearson's correlation coefficients between physical characteristics, alcohol consumption and blood variables

1) BMI: Body mass index (kg/m2)

2) Limited to Alcohol-only group

3, 4) Limited to Alcohol-Smoking group

*: p < 0.05


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