Journal List > Korean J Nutr > v.42(5) > 1043776

Lee, Lee, Kim, Kim, and Lee: Analysis of Serum Antioxidant Materials Concentration and Their Relation with Blood Lipids and Anthropometric Indices in Middle-Aged Adults in Korea


The serum levels of antioxidant materials (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinol) of the healthy Korean middle-aged adults (n = 373) were measured and their relationships with the serum lipids and anthropometric indices were analyzed. The serum levels of β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein were higher than those of lycopene and α-carotene. The levels of all measured carotenoids except lutein were significantly higher in females than in males, but retinol level was vice versa. There was a tendency of increase in serum levels of antioxidant vitamins with increasing age. The serum carotenoid levels had a positive correlation with serum cholesterol and a negative correlation with serum triglyceride. The serum levels of tocopherols or retinol showed a significantly positive relationship with blood cholesterol or triglyceride. In overall, anthropometric indices showed negative relations with serum carotenoids levels, but vice versa with serum tocopherol or retinol levels. Particularly, β-carotene and lutein levels showed a significantly negative relation with blood pressure in male subjects. The serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin had significantly negative relations with body fat-related indices in female subjects. The results demonstrated that blood antioxidants levels differed by sex and age, and had significant relations with blood lipid levels and anthropometric indices. Therefore, the rationale and significance of the relationships need to be elucidated in the future study related to dietary intakes and life style.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Characteristics of the subjects

1)Number (%), 2) Values are mean ± S.D.

*: indicates significant difference between two groups by Student's t-test (*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.001)

NS: Not significantly different between two groups (p < 0.05), BMI: body mass index = Weight (kg)/Height (m)2, WHR: waist hip ratio = waist circumference/hip circumference, TBA: thiobarbituric acid

Table 2
Comparison of serum carotenoids, tocopherol and retinol concentrations by age and sex

1)Values are mean ± S.D.

: indicates significant difference between two sex-groups by Student's t-test (: p < 0.05, ††: p < 0.001)

*: indicates significant difference between two age-groups in the same sex by Student's t-test (*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.001)

Table 3
Distribution of the subjects according to nutritional status of serum α-tocopherol and retinol
Table 4
Correlation coefficients of serum carotenoids, tocopherol and retinol concentrations with serum lipids

1)indicates significant correlation between variables by Partial correlation coefficient (*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.001)

Adjusted for sex, age

Table 5
Correlation coefficients of serum carotenoids, tocopherol and retinol concentration with serum and urine TBARS

1)indicates significant correlation between variables by Partial correlation test (*: p < 0.05)

Adjusted for sex, age. TBARS: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances

Table 6
Correlation coefficient of serum carotenoids, tocopherol and retinol concentration with anthropometric indices

1)indicates significant correlation between variables by Partial correlation test (*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.001)

Adjusted for age, total cholesterol

BMI: body mass index = Weight (kg)/Height (m)2, WHR: waist hip ratio = waist circumference/hip circumference, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure


1. Papas AM. Papas AM, editor. Determinants of antioxidant status in humans. Antioxidant status, diet, nutrition and health. 1999. CRC Press;21–36.
2. Davis KJ. Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life. Biochem Soc Symp. 1995. 61:1–31.
3. Polidori MC, Stahl W, Eichler O, Niestroj I, Sies H. Oxidative stress status: Profiles of antioxidants in human plasma. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001. 30(5):456–462.
4. Gutteridge JMC, Hwiwell B. Antioxidants in Nutrtion, Health and Disease. 1994. Oxford University press.
5. Ames BN, Shigenaga MK, Hagen TM. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative disease of aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993. 90:7915–7922.
6. Singh VN. A current perspective on nutrition and exercise. J Nutr. 1992. 122:760–765.
7. Frei B, Stocker R, Ames BN. Antioxidant defense and lipid peroxidant in human blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1989. 86:6377–6381.
8. Schmidt K. Antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene: effects on immunocompetence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991. 53:383s–385s.
9. Gey KF, Brubacher GB, Sthelin HB. Plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins in relation to ischemic heart disease and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987. 45:1368–1377.
10. Krinsky NI. Actions of carotenoids in biological systems. Annu Rev Nutr. 1993. 13:561–587.
11. Byers T, Perry G. Dietary carotenoids, vitamin C, and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Annu Rev Nutr. 1992. 13:139–159.
12. Freudenheim JL, Marshall JR, Vena JE, Laughlin R, Brasure JR, Swanson MK, Nemoto T, Graham S. Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits and related nutrients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996. 88:340–348.
13. Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Intake of carotenoids and retinol in ralation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995. 87:1767–1776.
14. Midgetts AS, Baron JA, Roban TE. Do cigarette smokers have diets that increase their risk of coronary heart disease and cancer? Am J Epidemiol. 1993. 137(5):521–529.
15. Nomura AMY, Stammermann GN, Heibrun LK. Serum vitamin levels and the risk of cancer of specific sites in men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res. 1985. 43:2369–2372.
16. Street DA, Comstock GW, Salkeld RM, Schuep W, Klag MJ. Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction: Are low levels of carotenoids and α-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation. 1994. 90:1154–1161.
17. Singh RB, Niaz Ma, Bishnoi I, Sharma JP, Gupta S, Rastogi SS, Singh R, Begum R, Chibo H, Shoumin Z. Diet, antioxidant vitamins, oxidative stress and risk of coronary artery disease: The peerzada prospective study. Acta Cardiol. 1994. 49(5):453–467.
18. Handelman GJ, Packer L, Cross CE. Destruction of tocopherols, carotenoids and retinol in human plasma by cigarette smoke. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996. 63(4):559–565.
19. Yeum KJ, Lee-Kim YC, Lee KY, Kim BS, Roh JK, Park KS, Tang G, Russell RM. The serum levels of retinoids, β-carotene and α-tocopherol of cancer patients. J Korean Cancer Assoc. 1992. 24(3):343–351.
20. Choi YS, Lee NH, Cho SH, Bae BS, Park WH, Im JG. Plasma antioxidant status and platelet antioxidantive enzyme activities in patients of ischemic heart disease. Korean J Nutr. 1996. 29(2):223–231.
21. Kim MJ, Kim OH, Kim JH. The effects of smoking, drinking and exercise on antioxidant vitamin intakes and plasma antioxidant status in elderly people living in Ulsan. Korean J Community Nutr. 2002. 7(4):527–538.
22. Kim YK, Chyun JH. Effect of smoking and carotenoid-rich food consumption on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. Korean J Nutr. 2005. 38(10):836–846.
23. Park SM, Ahn HS. Antioxidant vitamins intakes and serum levels of retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol in college women students. Korean J Health Promot Dis Prev. 2003. 3(1):34–42.
24. Taladgis BG, Pearson AM, Duan LR. Chemistry of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test for determination of oxidation rancidity in foods. J Sci Food Agric. 1964. 15:602–607.
25. Nelson GJ, Joshi H, Subbarau SK, Sharma VP. The urinary excretion of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and malondialdehyde by normal adult males after consuming a diet containing solmon. Lipid. 1993. 28:757–761.
26. Bieri JG, Tolliver TJ, Catignani GL. Simultaneous determination of α-tocopherol and retinol in plasma or red cells by high pressure liquid chromatography. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979. 32:2143–2149.
27. Arroyave G, Chichester CO, Flores H, Glover J, Mejia LA, Olson JA, Simpson KL, Underwood BA. Biochemical methodology for the assessment of vitamin A status. A report of the international vitamin A consultative group. 1982. 69–72.
28. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary reference intakes for Koreans. 2005. Seoul:
29. WHO/IASO/IOTF. The Asia-Pacific perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. 2000. Health communication Australia Pty Ltd.
30. Nieman DC. Exercise testing and prescription. A healthrelated approach. 1999. 4th ed. Mayfield CA.: Mountain View.
31. Choi YS, Park HR, Kim HY, Jang SO, Lee HS. Nutrition. 2006. Seoul: Hyoilbooks;232.
32. The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005. 2006. Ministry of health and welfare.
33. Lee YJ. Advanced Nutrition. 2006. 3rd ed. Seoul, Korea: Shinkwang Pub.;329–330.
34. Ahn YJ, Paik HY. Levels and factors affecting serum carotenoids concentrations of adults living in rural area of Korea. Korean J Nutr. 1997. 30(5):489–498.
35. Ko YS, Hong YJ, Chung HY, Kim SY, Lee-Kim YC. A study on antioxidant system in cataract patients. Korean J Nutr. 2002. 35(2):229–236.
36. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E. Seasonla and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994. 60:106–110.
37. Kim JW, Choi EK, Lim JH, Kim YT, Kim DK, Lee-Kim YC, Kim SY, Chung HY. Antioxidant system and oxidative stress in uterine cervical neoplasia of Korean women. Korean J Obstet Gynecol. 2002. 45(1):145–152.
38. Cho SH, Lee OJ, Im JG, Choi Y, Ryu R, Park WH. A study on the status of antioxidant nutrients and lipid in the middle-aged Korean men living in Taegu. Korean J Nutr. 1995. 28(1):35–45.
39. Shim JE, Paik HY, Lee SY, Moon HK, Kim YO, Kwon HH, Kim JH. Assessment of vitamin A and E status in Korean rural adult population by dietary intake and serum levels. Korean J Nutr. 2001. 34(2):213–221.
40. Buiatti E, Munoz N, Kato I, Vivas J, Muggli R, Plummer M, Benz M, Franceschi S, Oliver W. Determinants of plasma anti-oxidant vitamin levels in a population at high risk for stomach cancer. Int J Cancer. 1996. 65:317–332.
41. Machlin LJ. Handbook of vitamins: Vitamin E. 1991. New York, Dekker: 99–144.
42. Sauberlich HE, Skala JH, Dowdy RP. Laboratory Test for the Assessment of Nutritional Status. 1999. Cleveland OH USA: CRC Press.
43. Lee RD, Nieman DC. Nutritional assessment. 2007. 4th ed. McGraw Hill;335–337.
44. Yoon SH, Kwon JS, Park KH. A study of how serum lipids, antioxidative vitamins and other relatived factors effected patients with cerebrovascular disease. J Korean Soc Hygienic Sci. 1998. 4(1):23–40.
45. Bolton-Smith C, Casey CE, Gey KF, Smith WCS, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Antioxidant vitamin intakes assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire: Correlation with biochemical status in smokers and non-smokers. Br J Nutr. 1991. 65:337–346.
46. Scott KJ, Thurnham DI, Hart DJ, Bingham SA, Day K. The correlation between the intake of lutein, lycopene and β-carotene from vegetables and fruits, and blood plasma concentrations in a group of women aged 50-65 years in the UK. Br J Nutr. 1996. 75(3):409–418.
Similar articles