Journal List > Korean J Orthod > v.40(4) > 1043629

Korean J Orthod. 2010 Aug;40(4):239-249. Korean.
Published online August 26, 2010.  https://doi.org/10.4041/kjod.2010.40.4.239
Copyright © 2010 Korean Association of Orthodontists
Expression of nitric oxide synthases in the mandibular condyle of anterior repositioned rat mandibles
Hyun-Sook Kim, DDS, MSD,a Ho-Young Kim, DDS, MSD,b Sung-Su Heo, DDS, MSD,c Kyang-Hwa Kang, DDS, MSD, PhD,d and Sang-Cheol Kim, DDS, MSD, PhDe
aPrivate Practice.
bGraduate Student, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Korea.
cResident, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Korea.
dAssociate Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Korea.
eProfessor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Korea.

Corresponding author: Sang-Cheol Kim. Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, 344-2 Shinyong-dong, Iksan 570-749, Korea. +82 63 859 2960; Email: sangkim@wku.ac.kr .
Received September 29, 2009; Revised February 27, 2010; Accepted March 03, 2010.

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to identify the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the mandibular condyle during mandible advancement by functional appliance and to correlate it with the histologic changes and bone remodeling.

Methods

Twenty-four female, 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups. In all experimental groups, the mandibles of the rats were kept in a continuous forward position with a fixed bite jumping appliance. The rats were sacrificed on the 3rd, 14th, and 30th days of experiment. More than 2 rats in each group were used for staining.

Results

There were no remarkable histologic changes and NOS expression differences in the control group. The most prominent histologic changes occurred in the 14th day experimental group. NOS decreased in the 30th day experimental group. There was increased expression of NOS2 and NOS3 in all experimental groups, comparative to the control group. In all the experimental groups and control group, the expression of NOS2 was greater than that of NOS3.

Conclusions

It is postulated that NOS2 and NOS3 in the mandibular condyle might play an important role in bone remodelling of the mandibular condyle.

Keywords: Functional orthopedic treatment; Mandibular condyle; Histology; Bone biology

Figures


Fig. 1
Bite-jumping appliance in place for anterior forward movement.
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Fig. 2
Diagram of the mode of action of the bite-jumping appliance. Gray circle indicates the bite-jumping appliance. A, Normal position; B, forward position.
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Fig. 3
Comparison of histologic changes in the condyle between the control group and experimental groups according to the appliance wearing time (H&E stain, × 40). A, Control group -3rd day with control condyle showing fibrous articular (A), proliferative (P), hypertrophic cartilage (H) zone and subchondral bone (S); B, experimental group -3rd day; C, control group -14th day showing a similar pattern to the 3rd day control group, with a well preserved layer of fibrous articular; D, experimental group -14th day; E, control group -30th day; F, experimental group -30th day. The 30 day control group (E) shows a similar pattern to the 14 day control group (C). The 30 day experiment group (F) shows similar patterns to the 3 day experiment group (B).
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Fig. 4
Microphotography of the control and experimental groups at 3 days which were immunohistochemically stained for NOS2 and NOS3 (A,C, NOS2; B,D, NOS3, × 200). The expressions of NOS2 and NOS3 were rare in the condyles of the 3 day control group (expressions of NOS2 or NOS3 are indicated by arrow). The expression of NOS2 in the condyle (C) was more prominent in the 3 day experimental group than that of the control group (A), especially in the hypertrophic and proliferating zones (C). But the expression of NOS3 (D) was similar to that of the control group (B).
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Fig. 5
Microphotography of the control and experimental groups at 14 days which were immunohistochemically stained for NOS2 and NOS3 (A,C, NOS2; B,D; NOS3, × 200). Expressions of NOS2 and NOS3 in subchondral bone of the condyle were noted (A,B). Both NOS2 and NOS3 expressions in the 14 days experimental group (C,D) were greater in the hypertrophic zone and subchondral bone than those of the control groups (A,B).
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Fig. 6
Microphotography of the control and experimental group at 30 days which were immunohistochemically stained for NOS2 and NOS3 (A,C, NOS2; B,D, NOS3, × 200). The expressions of NOS2 and NOS3 in the condyle (A,B) were similar to those of control groups of 3 days and 14 days (Fig 4A, 4B, 5A, 5B). There were no significant differences between the expressions of NOS2 and NOS3 in the condyle of experimental group (C,D) relative to those of the control groups (A,B).
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Tables


Table 1
Expression of NOS2 in the mandibular condyle of anterior repositioned mandibles in the control and experimental groups
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Table 2
Expression of NOS3 in the condyle and glenoid fossa of TMJ of anterior repositioned mandibles
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