Journal List > Korean J Phys Anthropol > v.26(1) > 1039140

Kim and Cho: Difference of Second to Fourth Digit Ratio according to the Methods of Measuring Length

Abstract

The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) reflects exposure level of sex hormones in fetal period and there are various methods for finger length measurement. The aim of this study is to identify an accurate and effective method for finger length measurement.
This study was done on 272 individuals (115 males, 157 females). Data were collected by measuring index and ring finger length on both hands by calipers, ruler, photocopy, and radiography. The data were analyzed through independent t-test, paired t-test, Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS win 19.0.
This study showed that the 2nd and 4th finger measured by radiography were the longest finger both of males and females and revealed the largest length difference between 2nd and 4th finger. There were significant sex differences all of 4 measurement methods in 2D : 4D, especially remarkable sex difference by radiography and photography. The 2D : 4D by indirect measurement was lower than that of direct measurement. Correlation between digit ratio by radiography and by photocopy was 0.590 and correlation between digit ratio by radiography and by calipers was 0.586.
The results of this study suggest that indirect measurement by radiography can be alternated by photocopy primarily and by calipers secondarily.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Second and fourth finger length by radiography was measured from proximl end of proximal phalanx to distal end of distal phalanx.
kjpa-26-25-g001
Table 1
Differences of second and fourth finger length according to measurement method (N=272)
kjpa-26-25-i001

2D : 4D; second to fourth digit ratio

M; mean, SD; standard deviation

Table 2
Sex differences of second to fourth digit ratio according to measurement method (N=272)
kjpa-26-25-i002

2D : 4D; second to fourth digit ratio

M; mean, SD; standard deviation

*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001

Table 3
Differences of measurement method in second to fourth digit ratio (N=272)
kjpa-26-25-i003

2D : 4D; second to fourth digit ratio

M; mean, SD: standard deviation

*; Significant difference (p<0.001) between measurement methods in males

; Significant difference (p<0.001) between measurement methods in females

Table 4
Correlation among digit ratios according to measurement method of finger length (N=272)
kjpa-26-25-i004

2D : 4D; second to fourth digit ratio

By Pearson's correlation analysis, *p<0.001

References

1. Lutchmaya S, Baron-Cohen S, Raggatt P, Knickmeyer R, Manning JT. 2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol. Early Hum Dev. 2004. 77(1-2):23–28.
2. Malas MA, Dogan S, Evcil EH, Desdicioglu K. Fetal development of the hand, digits and digit ratio (2D : 4D). Early Hum Dev. 2006. 82(7):469–475.
3. Manning JT, Stewart A, Bundred PE, Trivers RL. Sex and ethnic differences in 2nd to 4th digit ratio of children. Early Hum Dev. 2004. 80:161–168.
4. Choi KH, Kwon SO. Sex differences in ratio of the lengths of the second to fourth digits (2D : 4D). Korean J Growth Dev. 2007. 15:155–159. Korean.
5. Hönekopp J, Watson S. Meta-analysis of digit ratio 2D : 4D shows greater sex difference in the right hand. Am J Hum Biol. 2010. 22:619–660.
6. Bang AK, Carlsen E, Holm M. A study of finger lengths, semen quality and sex hormones in 360 young men from the general Danish population. Hum Reprod. 2005. 20:3109–3113.
7. Rahman AA, Lophatananon A, Brown SS, Harriss D, Anderson J, Parker T. Hand pattern indicates prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2011. 104:175–177.
8. Manning JT, Bundred PE. The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and age at first myocardial infarction in men: a link with testosterone? Br J Cardiol. 2001. 12:720–723.
9. Zhang W, Robertson J, Doherty S, Liu JJ, Maciewicz RA, Muir KR, et al. Index to ring finger length ratio and the risk of osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008. 58:137–144.
10. Buck JJ, Williams RM, Hughes IA, Acerini CL. In-utero androgen exposure and 2nd to 4th digit length ratio-comparisons between 29 healthy controls and females with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hum Reprod. 2003. 18:976–979.
11. Manning JT, Taylor RP. Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: Implications for sexual selection in humans. Evol Hum Behav. 2001. 22:61–69.
12. Sanders G, Bereczkei T, Csatho A, Manning J. The ratio of the 2nd to 4th finger length predicts spatial ability in men but not women. Cortex. 2005. 41:789–795.
13. Park SW, Kim JK. The utility of the 2nd-4th digit ratio (2D : 4D) for body composition, physical fitness and exercise training effects in children. Korean J Growth Dev. 2010. 18(1):1–10. Korean.
14. Cho HJ. The relationship between the putative marker of prenatal androgen exposure and physical fitness in elementary school students. 2010. Seoul National University of Education;Thesis of graduate school, Korean.
15. Bailey AA, Hurd PL. Finger length ratio (2D : 4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biol Psychol. 2005. 68:215–222.
16. Manning JT, Fink B. Digit ratio (2D: 4D) and aggregate personality scores across nations: Data from the BBC internet study. Pers Indiv Differ. 2011. 51:387–391.
17. Manning JT, Trivers RL, Thornhill R, Singh D. The 2nd : 4th digit ratio and asymmetry of hand performance in Jamaican children. Laterality. 2000. 5(2):121–132.
18. Manning JT, Fink B, Neave N, Caswell N. Photocopies yield lower digit ratios (2d : 4d) than direct finger measurements. Arch Sex Behav. 2005. 34:329–333.
19. Kemper CJ, Schwerdtfeger A. Comparing indirect methods of digit ratio (2D : 4D) measurement. Am J Hum Biol. 2009. 21(2):188–191.
20. Allaway HC, Bloski TG, Pierson RA, Lujan ME. Digit ratios (2D : 4D) determined by computer-assisted analysis are more reliable than those using physical measurements, photocopies, and printed scans. Am J Hum Biol. 2009. 21(3):365–370.
21. Lee HS. Correlation between directly measured and photocopy measured 2D : 4D with TCI scales. 2009. Hanyang University;Thesis of Graduate school, Korean.
22. Rammsayer TH, Troche SJ. Sexual dimorphism in second-to-fourth digit ratio and its relation to gender-role orientation in males and females. Pers Indiv Differ. 2007. 42:911–920.
23. Coyne SM, Manning JT, Ringer L, Bailey L. Directional asymmetry (right-left differences) in digit ratio (2D : 4D) predict indirect aggression in women. Pers Indiv Differ. 2007. 43:865–872.
24. Caswell N, Manning JT. A comparison of finger 2D : 4D by selfreport direct measurement and experimenter measurement from photocopy: Methodological issues. Arch Sex Behav. 2009. 38:143–148.
25. McIntyre MH, Barrett ES, McDermott R, Johnson DDP, Cowden J, Rosen SP. Finger length ratio (2D : 4D) and sex differences in aggression during a simulated war game. Pers Indiv Differ. 2007. 42:755–764.
26. Lee YJ. Surface anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical examination (Lumley JSP). 2003. 3rd ed. Seoul: Panmun Book Co.;79.
27. Almasry SM, El Domiaty MA, Algaidi SA, Elbastawisy YM, Safwat MD. Index to ring digit ratio in Saudi Arabia at Almadinah Almonawarah province: a direct and indirect measurement study. J Anat. 2011. 218(2):202–208.
28. Burriss RP, Little AC, Nelson EC. 2D : 4D and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. Arch Sex Behav. 2007. 36(3):377–384.
29. Voracek M, Dressler SG. High (feminized) digit ratio (2D : 4D) in Danish men: a question of measurement method? Hum Reprod. 2006. 21(5):1329–1331. author reply 1331-2.
30. Voracek M, Offenmüller D. Digit ratios (2D : 4D and other) and relative thumb length: a test of developmental stability. Percept Mot Skills. 2007. 105(1):143–152.
TOOLS
Similar articles