Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.20(3) > 1038499

Lee, Jeong, Ahn, Ahn, Ryu, Kang, and Oh: The Development of a Nutrition Education Program for Low-income Family Children by applying the Social Cognitive Theory and Health Belief Model



Based on individual and environmental characteristics of low-income children, we developed a nutrition education program for school-aged children from low-income families according to effective use in social welfare centers.


We conducted in-depth group interviews to assess program needs in 28 participants, 10 low-income school-aged children and 9 of their care givers, 9 social workers and 9 care-givers. Theoretical backgrounds of our program were heath belief model and social cognitive theory considering motivation, action and environment characteristics.


Based on the findings of this qualitative study, we developed major program themes and contents. Five selected key themes were 'balanced diet', 'processed food', 'food hygiene and safety', 'Korean healthy traditional diet', and 'family cooking' to induce changes in dietary behaviors. Main findings of in-depth group interviews included 'child's active participation', 'simple and easy to understand messages', and 'environmental constraints' such as a lack of child care at home, limited budget of social welfare centers, and less qualified educators for nutrition and health. Each lesson was constructed as a 1-hour program particularly emphasizing activity-based programs, including cooking and teamwork exercises. Program contents in each session consisted of activities that could induce outcome and value expectations, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and barriers and cues to actions regarding diet behavior.


We developed a nutrition education programthat is rarely available for low-income children in Korea, considering theoretical bases. Further studies are needed to validate our program.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1

Process of development of nutrition education program

Fig. 2

Development of program based on social cognitive theory and health belief model.

Table 1

In-depth interview questions

Table 2

General characteristics of the study participants


1) Mean

Table 3

Main issues for nutrition education program

Table 4

Contents of nutrition education program considering theoretical bases


1) Social Cognitive Theory

2) Knowledge

3) Behavior

4) Health Belief Model


This research was supported by a grant from Amway Korea (2013).


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