Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.17(3) > 1038363

Koo, Kim, Kim, Yoon, and Park: Nutrient Intake, Lifestyle Factors and Prevalent Hypertension in Korean Adults: Results from 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


Hypertension is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that changes in diet and lifestyle factors can prevent the development of hypertension, but the combined effects of these modifiable factors on hypertension are not well established. The objective of this study is to investigate associations of diet and lifestyle factors, evaluated both individually and in combination, with prevalent hypertension among Korean adults. We analyzed data obtained from the 2007-2008 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study using a stratified, multistage probability sampling design. The associations of 12 nutrient intakes and lifestyle factors with risk of hypertension were explored using restricted cubic spline regression and logistic regression models among 6,351 adults. Total energy and several nutrients and minerals, including, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and sodium, showed non-linear relationships with the risk of prevalent hypertension. In multivariate logistic regression models, dietary score, obesity and alcohol intake were independently associated with the risk of prevalent hypertension, but smoking and physical activity were not. Overall, participants whose dietary habits and lifestyle factors were all in the low-risk group had 68% lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.32, 95 CI: 0.14-0.74) compared to those who were at least one in the high-risk group of any dietary or lifestyle factors. The result suggests that combined optimal lifestyle habits are strongly associated with lower prevalence of hypertension among Korean adults.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Flowchart for the subjects of present analysis.
1) Implausible estimates of total energy intake; age and sex specific total energy intake less than 25% of estimated energy requirements (EER) or more than 300% of EER.
Fig. 2
Odds ratios (95% CI) for the non-linear relationships between nutrient intakes (NAR) and the risk of prevalent hypertension, evaluated using restricted cubic spline regression, adjusting for age, sex and total energy intakes.
Table 1
Demographic and lifestyle characteristics among 6,351 Korean adults

1) Data are Means ± SD or N (%)

Table 2
The optimal range of nutrient intakes for the lower risk of prevalent hypertension (N = 6,351)

NAR_en: Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)

NAR: Nutrient Adequacy Ratio

Table 3
Comparisons of Individual Nutrient Score between hypertension and normal groups (N = 6,351)

1) Values are means of Individual Nutrient Scores (INS), adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake (INS of energy was adjusted for age and sex only)

Table 4
Individual lifestyle factors and the risk of prevalent hypertension

1) Adjusted for age, sex, and household income.

2) Additionally adjusted for each of the other lifestyle risk factors in the table

Table 5
The risk of prevalent hypertension according to the number of low-risk lifestyle factors

All models were adjusted for age, sex, and household income


This research was supported by grants from Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (2011E3500900).


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