Journal List > Korean J Community Nutr > v.16(2) > 1038291

Lee and Lee: Recognition and use of Nutrition Labeling among Hamburger and Pizza Restaurant Consumers in Daejeon


To investigate recognition and use of nutrition labeling on eating-out menus, self-recorded questionnaire was surveyed for 641 consumers who visited hamburger and pizza restaurants in Daejeon from May to July, 2010. Subjects were women of 51.3% and 92.9% aged 10s or 20s. Use frequency of hamburger and pizza restaurants was 2-3 times a month with 56.9%. Of subjects 41.0% knew nutrition labeling mandates of eating-out menus, 64.6% have seen nutrition labels of menus, and 44.5% read nutrition labels when purchasing. Among subjects who read nutrition labels, 67.0% (29.8% of total) referred to it when menu purchase and 60.4% (26.9% of total) experienced changing menu. The ratio of reading nutrition labels was different among gender, diet trial frequency and monthly eating-out cost. Reasons for not reading labels were "not interested in" or "never heard about" for 57.0%, and "not noticeable" for 28.7%. The ratio who read correctly all 3 pieces of information, such as calorie amount, daily value, and way of using daily value was 39.2%. Average number of correct reading was 2.13, which was different among gender, marital status, having children, diet trial frequency, monthly eating-out cost, the restaurants use frequency, and accompanying person. Many subjects wanted to be additionally provided with cholesterol and transfat. Therefore, practical and differentiated consumer educations considering consumer features are required for better nutrition labeling usage. Government's regulatory efforts and voluntary effort of eating-out companies, such as adding nutrients on labels and improving labeling places, are also necessary.

Figures and Tables

Fig. 1
Question example.
Fig. 2
Awareness of nutrition labeling mandates for the eating-out menu.
Fig. 3
Consumers' behaviors for nutrition label reading. *Among the subject who read nutrition labels (n = 285).
Fig. 4
Percentage of correct answer by question and distribution of correct answer number among 3 questions about nutrition label information on hamburger and pizza menus.
Q1: Energy amount, Q2: Daily value of sodium (%), Q3: Appropriateness of sodium amount compared with the daily value
Fig. 5
Nutrients which consumers were most interested among 5 nutrients labeled mandatorily and wanted to be added on nutrition labels of hamburger and pizza menus. *Multiple response
Table 1
General characteristics of the subjects

Total N = 641

1) Among the married subject (n = 65)

Table 2
Use of hamburger and pizza store of the subjects

Total N = 641

1) Multiple response

Table 3
Reasons for not reading nutrition label

Total N = 356

Table 4
Subject's number of reading nutrition label and the number of correct answer by general characteristics and hamburger and pizza store use behavior

1) Full number is 3

2) By t-test (t) or by ANOVA (F)

ab: Values with different superscript letters in a column are significantly different at p < 0.05 by Duncan's multiple range test

*: p < 0.05, ***: p < 0.001

Table 5
Needs for providing time and place of nutrition labels where consumers see best

1) N (% of total N=641) 2) Multiple response

Table 6
Hamburger and pizza store nutrition labeling status surveyed at the study period

1) Energy only, 2) 5 nutrients: Energy, Protein, Sugar, Sodium, Saturated fat


This study was financially supported by research fund of Chungnam National University in 2009.


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