Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.17(4) > 1037288

Yang and Seo: Concept Analysis of Effective Breastfeeding



This study was conducted to analyze and clarify the concept of the effective breastfeeding.


This study used Walker and Avant's process of concept analysis.


Effective breastfeeding is how to give infant adequate milk, which fulfills needs of mother and infant, from her breast so that they can be satisfied with the process and results. It included the effective breastfeeding properties as follows: feeding behaviors (positioning, latch on, and suckling), transferring a breast milk to an infant, mother-infant interaction, and satisfying their desires (satisfaction, comfort, mother's self-confidence, infant's adequate weight gain and defecation, adequate breastfeeding interval). The antecedent of effective breastfeeding were anatomical and functional normal breast, breastfeeding knowledge and steady-state of mother, and feeding desire, rooting reflex and normal oral cavity of infant. The consequences of effective breastfeeding were exclusive breastfeeding, infant and maternal health and wellbeing, and achievement of mother and infant attachment.


The meaning of effective breastfeeding defined in this study will contribute to develop the effectiveness breastfeeding assessment tool and the nursing intervention for ineffective breastfeeding.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Identity antecedents and consequences of effective breastfeeding.


This work was supported by a 2-Year Research Grant of Pusan National University.


1. Carpenito L.J. Nursing diagnosis: Application to clinical practice. 2006. 11 ed. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
2. Chin L.Y., Amir L.H. Survey of patient satisfaction with the breastfeeding education and support services of the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. BMC Health Services Research. 2008. 14(8):1–11.
3. Collins English Dictionary. Collins english dictionary. 2010. London: Harper Collins.
4. Ertem I.O., Votto N., Leventhal J.M. The timing and predictors of the early termination of breastfeeding. Pediatrics. 2001. 107(3):543–548.
5. Clinical guidelines for the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. International Lactation Consultant Association. Retrieved on October 15, 2010. from
6. Jensen D., Wallace S., Kelsay P. LATCH: A breastfeeding charting system and documentation tool. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. 1994. 23(1):27–32.
7. Jung E.J. Influence of initiating breastfeeding on duration of breastfeeding. 2008. Seoul: Hanyang University;Unpublished master's thesis.
8. Kim H.S. Guide to breastfeeding. 2003. Seoul: Hyunmoonsa.
9. Korean Committee for United Nations Children's Fund. Guide to successful breastfeeding. 2005. Seoul: Korean Committee for UNICEF.
10. Korean Lactation Consultant Association. Lamaze breastfeeding support specialist training programme. Paper presented at the meeting of the International Board Certified Lactation Consultant. 2002, November; Seoul:
11. Leff E.W., Jefferis S.C., Gagne M.P. The development of the maternal breastfeeding evaluation scale. Journal of Human Lactation. 1994. 10(2):105–111.
12. Livingstone V. Breastfeeding kinetics. A problem-solving approach to breastfeeding difficulties. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics. 1995. 78:28–54.
13. Matthews M.K. Developing an instrument to assess infant breastfeeding behaviour in the early neonatal period. Midwifery. 1988. 4(4):154–165.
14. 2005 Korean national health and neutrition survey: Nutrition survey. Ministry of Health and Welfare. 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2010. from
15. Minjungserim Editorial Board. Minjung essence chinese dictionary. 2007. Paju: Minjungseorim.
16. Mulder P.J. A concept analysis of effective breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN/NAACOG. 2006. 35(3):332–339.
17. Mulder P.J., Johnson T.S. The beginning breastfeeding survey: Measuring mothers perceptions of breastfeeding effectiveness during the postpartum hospitalization. Research in Nursing & Health. 2010. 33(4):329–344.
18. Mulford C. The mother-baby assessment(MBA): An "Apgar Score" for breastfeeding. Journal of Human lactation. 1992. 8(2):79–82.
19. Effectivenes s+breastmilk. National Institute of the Korean Language. 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010. from
20. Nelson A.M. Toward a situation specific theory of breastfeeding. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice. 2006. 20(1):9–27.
21. Park S.H., Koh H.J. Effect of breastfeeding education and fallow up care on the breastfeeding rate and breastfeeding method. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing. 2001. 7(1):30–43.
22. Riordan J., Bibb D., Miller M., Rawlins T. Predicting breastfeeding duration using the LATCH breast feeding assessment tool. Journal of Human Lactation. 2001. 17(1):20–23.
23. Shin H.J. Exploring the meaning of breastfeeding experience. Anthropology of Education. 2006. 9(2):89–115.
24. Shrago L., Bocar D. The infant's contribution to breastfeeding. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and neonatal Nursing. 1990. 19(3):209–215.
25. Walker L.O., Avant K.C. Strategies for theory construction in nursing. 2005. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
26. Wilson J. Thinking with concepts. 1963. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
27. Wojnar D. Maternal perceptions of early breastfeeding experience and breastfeeding outcome at 6 weeks. Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing. 2004. 8:93–100.
28. World Health Organization & United Nations Children's Fund. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Korea, Trans.). 2003. Seoul: Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Korea;(Original work fifty-fifth World Health Assembly provisional agenda item 55.25).
29. Yang H.J., Lee Y.E., Lee S.O. Factors related to neonatal suckling in the initiation of breastfeeding in primiparous mothers. Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing. 2005. 11(3):202–208.
30. Netsu Y.. E.R Kim . Self Mama Control. 2007. Seoul: Knowledge and Creative.
Similar articles