Journal List > Korean J Women Health Nurs > v.15(1) > 1037206

Korean J Women Health Nurs. 2009 Mar;15(1):32-42. Korean.
Published online March 31, 2009.
Copyright © 2009 Korean Academy of Women's Health Nursing
Effects of Abdominal Breathing on Anxiety, Blood Pressure, Peripheral Skin Temperature and Saturation Oxygen of Pregnant Women in Preterm Labor
Soon-Bok Chang,1 Hee-Sook Kim,2 Yun-Hee Ko,3 Choon-Hee Bae,4 and Sung-Eun An5
1Professor, College of Nursing, Yonsei University; Nursing Policy Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.
2Researcher, Nursing Policy Research Institute; Doctoral Student, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
3Doctoral Student, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
4Master, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
5RN, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea.

Address reprint requests to: Kim, Hee-Sook (Corresponding Author). #402 Nursing Policy Research Institute, College of Nursing, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea (120-752). Tel: 82-2-2228-3324, Fax: 82-2-362-1982, C.P: 82-11-9788-5817, Email:
Received October 30, 2008; Accepted February 28, 2009.



This study was done to examine the effects of abdominal breathing on VAS-Anxiety (VAS-A), blood pressure, peripheral skin temperature and saturation oxygen in pregnant women in preterm labor.


The study design was a matched control group interrupted time series. Forty-six women matched to gestational age were assigned to either the experimental group (26) or control group (20). Data were collected between March 2007 and May 2008. For the experimental treatment the women performed abdominal breathing 30 times, which took 5 minutes, and did one set of 5-minute abdominal breathing daily for three days. Data collection was done before and after the abdominal breathing to measure VAS-A, blood pressure, peripheral skin temperature and oxygen saturation. Descriptive, χ2, Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data with the SPSS/PC+Win 15.0 program.


For the experimental group there were significant decreases in VAS-A (Z=-4.37, p=.00), systolic blood pressure (Z=-3.38, p=.00), and an increase in skin temperature (Z=-4.50, p=.00) and oxygen saturation (Z=-3.66, p=.00).


These findings suggest that abdominal breathing in pregnant women in preterm labor results in decreases in anxiety(VAS-A) including biological evidences such as systolic blood pressure, and increases in peripheral skin temperature and oxygen saturation. Further longitudinal study is needed on the lasting effects and obstetric and neonatal outcomes following abdominal breathing.

Keywords: Abdominal breathing; Preterm labor; Anxiety; Blood Pressure; Saturation Oxygen


Figure 1
Research framework
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Table 1
Time process of abdominal breathing for one minute
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Table 2
Homogeneity test of general characteristics between the experimental and control groups (N=46)
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Table 3
Differences in anxiety, blood pressure, peripheral skin temperature and oxygen saturation between the experimental and control groups (N=46)
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This study was financially supported by the Korea Research Foundation (No.2006-0294-E00087).

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