Journal List > J Bacteriol Virol > v.43(3) > 1034088

Yang, Kim, Nah, Choi, Kim, Jeong, and Song: Serologic Survey of Rabies Virus, Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in Wild Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) in Korea


Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program for the wild animals in rabies risk regions of Korea has been conducted since 2000. Evaluation of ORV program under field condition and information concerning the incidence of exposure to canine distemper and canine parvovirus (CPV) are needed in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis). Ninety four sera of wild raccoon dogs were screened for antibodies against rabies, canine distemper virus (CDV) and CPV in Korea. The overall prevalence of antibodies against rabies virus (RABV), CDV and CPV in wild raccoon dogs was 35.1%, 89.4% and 24.5%, respectively. Comparisons of sero-prevalences of RABV, CDV and CPV were assayed in two regions (Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do). The Gyeonggi-do (36.4%) showed higher sero-positive rate against CPV than Gangwon-do (20.8%). In contrast, Gangwon-do (41.7% and 97.2%) showed higher sero-positive rates against RABV and CDV than Gyeonggi-do (13.6% and 63.6%). These results indicate that there was severe circulation of CDV and CPV among wild raccoon dogs in the two regions of Korea. Furthermore, raccoon dogs showing a protective antibody titer (0.5 IU/ml) were 15.9%, suggesting that new rabies control program such as trap-vaccination-release (TVR) should be launched urgently in rabies risk regions.


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Figure 1.
Sero-positive rate against RABV in Korean raccoon (n=94). Virus neutralizing antibody titer was determined by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. The threshold of positivity used was 0.1 IU/ml and the protective antibody titer was expressed in 0.5 IU/ml. *The antibody mean titer of Gangwon-do was significantly higher than that of Gyeonggi-do (p < 0.05).
Table 1.
Distribution of ELISA titer against canine distemper virus in Korean raccoon dogs
Province* ELISA Titer against CDV
Positive rate (%)
Neg** (OD <0.2) Low (0.2 ≤ OD <0.4) Medium (0.4 ≤ OD <0.8) High (OD >0.8)
GG 8 12 2 0 14/22 (63.6)
GW 2 9 30 31 70/72 (97.2)***
Total 10 21 32 31 84/94 (89.4)

* GG: Gyeonggi-do, GW: Gangwon-do.

** The ELISA OD results of negative (OD <0.2), low (0.2≤ OD <0.4), medium (0.4≤ OD <0.8) or high (OD ≥0.8) were equivalent to the CDV serum neutralization titer of negative, 1:20, 1:80, or >1:320, respectively, according to the manufacturer's indications.

*** The antibody mean titer of GW was significantly higher than that of GG (p < 0.001).

Table 2.
Distribution of HI titer against canine parvovirus (CPV2a) in Korean raccoon dogs
Province* HI titer against CPV Positive rate (%)
<10 20 40 80 160 320 640 1,280 2,560
GG 14 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 2 8/22 (36.4)
GW 57 0 2 0 1 2 0 4 6 15/72 (20.8)
Total 71 0 4 1 2 2 1 5 8 23/94 (24.5)

* GG: Gyeonggi-do, GW: Gangwon-do.

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