Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.56(2) > 1017860

Yun, Woo, Lee, and Won: Comparison of Cognitive Control Deficits in Patients with Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected First-Degree Relatives

Abstract

Objectives

This study aimed to identify the differences in the profiles of cognitive control deficits among schizophrenic patients and endophenotypes.

Methods

The study examined three groups: remitted patients with schizophrenia (n=54), unaffected first-degree relatives of the probands with schizophrenia (n=36), and a healthy control group (n=51), which were all matched for age, sex, and years of education. The AX version of the continuous performance test was used to examine cognitive control. The error rate, correct response times of each subset (AX, BX, AY, BY), and d′ as an indication of the accuracy sensitivity index were calculated. The psychopathology, intelligence, and psychomotor speed were also assessed.

Results

Patients with schizophrenia showed significantly poorer error rates and d′ in the AX and BX subsets than the others. They showed more delayed correct response times than the healthy control group in all subsets. The first-degree relatives also showed more delayed correct response times in the BX and AY subsets than the healthy control group, but were similar to the patients.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that cognitive control is impaired in schizophrenia and endophynotypes possibly share this delayed information processing from the higher loading states of cognitive control.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Demographic and clinical features of the subjects

jkna-56-61-i001

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation. * : Analysis of variance and LSD's post hoc comparison were used. 1 : SPR-P, 2 : SPR-R, 3 : HC. † : Dosage equivalents of chlorpromazine. SPR-P : Patients with schizophrenia, SPR-R : Unaffected first-degree relatives of SPR-P, HC : Healthy controls, BPRS : Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, K-MADRS : Korean version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, AAP : Atypical antipsychotics

Table 2

Error rates of AX-CPT for the subjects

jkna-56-61-i002

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation. Analysis of covariance controlling age and K-MADRS was used. 1 : SPR-P, 2 : SPR-R, 3 : HC. * : By LSD test. CPT : Continuous performance task, SPR-P : Patients with schizophrenia, SPR-R : Unaffected first-degree relatives of SPR-P, HC : Healthy controls, AX : A trial type in which A precedes X, BX : A trial type in which B (any non-A cue) precedes X, AY : A trial type in which A precedes Y (any non-X probe), BY : A trial type in which B precedes Y, d′ : A sensitivity of defects, K-MADRS : Korean version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale

Table 3

Correct response times of AX-CPT for the subjects

jkna-56-61-i003

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation. Analysis of covariance controlling age and K-MADRS was used. 1 : SPR-P, 2 : SPR-R, 3 : HC. * : By LSD test. CPT : Continuous performance task, SPR-P : Patients with schizophrenia, SPR-R : Unaffected first-degree relatives of SPR-P, HC : Healthy controls, AX : A trial type in which A precedes X, BX : A trial type in which B (any non-A cue) precedes X, AY : A trial type in which A precedes Y (any non-X probe), BY : A trial type in which B precedes Y, K-MADRS : Korean version of the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale

Notes

Conflicts of Interest The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

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