Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.56(3) > 1017842

Lee, Lee, Shin, Kim, Lee, and Lee: Psychopathology Associated with Participant Role among Bullying Situation



In recent years, school violence has been increasing and this situation is complicated by various factors. The objective of this study is to explore the distribution of the participants' roles and to examine the psychopathology associated with these roles among middle school students.


In a cross-sectional study, 490 middle school students completed the Participant Role Questionnaire (PRQ) for classifying the participants' roles in a bullying situation. The Korean-Youth Self Report (K-YSR), Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and Parent Adolescent Communication Inventory (PACI) were also included to evaluate the psychopathology of the students.


The distribution rates of the bully, assistant, reinforcer, defender and outsider groups were 4.1%, 3.1%, 5.3%, 53.7%, and 32.0%, respectively. Among the syndrome scales of K-YSR, almost each items' and the total scores (p=0.049), RCMAS (p=0.000), PACI (p=0.000), and RSE (p=0.000) were significantly different among all group. The average scores on the K-YSR and RCMAS were the highest in the assistant and reinforcer groups.


The assistant and reinforcer groups showed more severe psychopathologies. This means that they suffered from more difficulties than the other groups. Therefore, they need more intensive therapeutic interventions. Except for the defender group, who prevented bullying, the outsider group was the largest group. Therefore, a comprehensive approach that can change outsiders to defenders should be employed for the prevention of bullying in adolescents.

Figures and Tables

Table 1

Sociodemographic data of participants


*: 1 USD=1000 Korean Won

Table 2

Distribution of participants' role in bullying situation

Table 3

Comparison of K-YSR, RCMAS, RSE and PACI among participants' role


*: p<0.05. M : Mean, SD : Standard deviation, K-YSR : Korean-Youth Self Report, RCMAS : Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, RSE : Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, PACI : Parent Adolescent Communication Inventory, A : Assistant, B : Bully, D : Defender, O : Outsider, R : Reinforce, ANOVA : Analysis of variance, HSD : Honestly significant difference


Conflicts of Interest The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.


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