Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.53(6) > 1017709

Sohn, Kim, Kang, Lim, Chung, Choi, Kim, and So: Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Daytime Sleepiness in High School Students



Various sleep patterns may be shown in adolescents to be busy for studying. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep-wake patterns and to evaluate predictors of daytime sleepiness.


Among 1011 high school students living in Cheonan-si, demographic variables and self-reported questionnaires, including items about menstruation, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were admitted.


total of 839 students (male=453, female=386) completed questionnaires. Significant differences in sleep pattern, categorized by score of MEQ (p=0.004), ESS (p<0.001), and BDI (p=0.012) were observed between male and female subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that excessive daytime sleepiness was predicted by female [odds ratio (OR)=2.039, p=0.022] and sleep quality (OR=1.238, p=0.004). In the regression analysis of female students, dysmenorrhea (β=0.108, p=0.029), eating of caffeine (β=-0.114, p=0.019), MEQ (β=-0.108, p=0.027), insomnia (β=0.180, p=0.002), and depression (β=0.116, p=0.029) might be associated with daytime sleepiness.


In Korean high school students, female and sleep quality might be risk factors of daytime sleepiness. Daytime sleepiness was known to be related with cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, an education program for improving sleep quality in these adolescents should be considered for mental health.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Demographic characteristics and psychological variables of all participants

Data are presented mean value±standard deviation. BMI : Body mass index, PSQI : Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ESS : Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ISI : Insomnia Severity Index, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory

Table 2
Comparison of sleep characteristics and psychological variables among sleep patterns

Data are presented mean value±standard deviation. *: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, : The same letters indicate significant difference at the level of p<0.05 between groups based on Bonferroni multiple comparisons test, ‡§: The same letters indicate significant difference at the level of p<0.001 between groups based on Bonferroni multiple comparisons test. PSQI : Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ESS : Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ISI : Insomnia Severity Index, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory

Table 3
Independent predictors of daytime sleepiness in all participants (n=839)

* : Adjusted for all variables included in this table. SE : Standard error, CI : Confidence interval, PSQI : Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory, OR : Odds ratio

Table 4
Independent predictors of daytime sleepiness in female students (n=386)

SE : Standard error, MEQ : Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, PSQI : Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, BDI : Beck Depression Inventory, ISI : Insomnia Severity Index


The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.


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