Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.53(6) > 1017703

Huh, Choi, and Seok: Relationship of Suicide Risk with Early Life Stress and Resilience in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder



The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of suicide risk with early-life stress (ELS) and resilience in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).


The participants were 60 patients with MDD and 29 healthy volunteers. Each subject was assessed concerning ELS, resilience factors, suicide ideation, and depressive symptom severity using self-report questionnaires. Mann-Whitney test and stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed.


Emotional abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and exposure to inter-parental violence were higher in the patient group than in the control group. Resilience factors were significantly lower in the patient group. In multiple regression analyses, final regression model including physical abuse, neglect, and self-regulation factor was significant explaining 45.6% variance of suicide ideation score.


We found that ELS experiences, particularly exposure to inter-parental violence, might be a significant risk factor for development of depression. In particular, experiences of physical abuse and neglect might increase the risk of suicide in depression but resilience may play a protective role in development of depression and prevention of suicide in depressive patients.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
Clinical characteristics of the subjects

Values are presented as mean±SD. *: Chi-square test for categorical variable and independent t-test for continuous variable were performed p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. HC : Healthy control group, MDD : Major depressive disorder patient group, SD : Standard deviation

Table 2
Comparison of early life stress profile and resilience factors depending on the major depressive disorder or the presence of ELS

Values are presented as median (25??5% quartile). Mann-Whitney tests were performed. *: p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. HC : Healthy control group, MDD : Major depressive disorder patient group, ELS : Early life stress, IPR : Interpersonal relationship

Table 3
Comparison of early life stress profiles and resilience factors between health control and major depressive disorder groups depending on the presence of ELS

Values are presented as median (25??5% quartile). Mann-Whitney tests were performed. *: p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. HC : Healthy control group, MDD : Major depressive disorder patient group, ELS : Early life stress, IPR : Interpersonal relationship

Table 4
Association of suicide risk with early life stress and resilience in MDD

Multiple regression analyses were performed. Dependent variables : Reynolds' Suicide Ideation Questionnaire. Model 1 (R2=0.116, F=25.040), Model 2 (R2=0.400, F=18.310), Model 3 (R2=0.456, F=15.093). MDD : Major depressive disorder patient group

Table 5
Association of suicide risk with early life stress and resilience in MDD with early life stress

Multiple regression analyses were performed. Dependent variables : Reynolds' Suicide Ideation Questionnaire. Model 1 (R2=0.357, F=23.353), Model 2 (R2=0.501, F=20.623), Model 3 (R2=0.572, F=17.796). MDD : Major depressive disorder patient group


The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.


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