Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.53(5) > 1017693

Cho, Lee, Kwon, Jeong, Shin, and Shim: Mental Disorders in Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

Abstract

Objectives

Information on the specificity of associations between parents with bipolar disorder (BPD) and risk of psychopathology in their offspring is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mental disorders in the offspring of individuals with BPD in South Korea.

Methods

The sample consisted of 100 child and adolescent offspring (aged 6.0-18.9 years) from 65 nuclear families having at least one parent with BPD. Probands, offspring, and biological co-parents were interviewed using a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the offspring were evaluated using the Korean version of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL).

Results

Sixty one of the 100 participants met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Of these, 35 participants had a mood disorder, 35 had an anxiety disorder, and 29 had attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty nine of the offspring had no psychiatric diagnosis. Of the 35 with a mood disorder, 16 (45.7%) had comorbid ADHD and 18 (51.4%) had comorbid anxiety disorders.

Conclusion

Offspring of parents with BPD are at high risk for mental disorders. These findings further support the heredity of BPD and indicate the need for early identification and treatment.

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Incidence of mental disorders classified by age and sex of offspring (n=100). ADHD: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, DBD: Disruptive behavior disorders, MDD: Major depressive disorder, NOS: Not otherwise specified.
jkna-53-310-g001
Table 1-1
Demographic characteristics of parents (n=65)
jkna-53-310-i001

SD: Standard deviation

Table 1-2
Demographics and clinical characteristics of offspring (n=100)
jkna-53-310-i002

ARS: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating-Scale, CDI: Children's Depression Inventory, MDQ: Mood Disorders Questionnaire, RCMAS: The Revised Children Manifest Anxiety Scale, SD: Standard deviation

Table 2
Primary and comorbid diagnoses of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (n=100)
jkna-53-310-i003

*: Comorbidities are possible. ADHD: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, DBD: Disruptive behavior disorders, MDD: Major depressive disorder, NOS: Not otherwise specified

Table 3
Comparison of primary diagnoses of the offspring of parents with bipolar I and II disorders (n=100)
jkna-53-310-i004

*: Comorbidities are possible. ADHD: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BID: Bipolar I disorder, BIID: Bipolar II disorder, DBD: Disruptive behavior disorders, MDD: Major depressive disorder, NOS: Not otherwise specified

Table 4
Incidence of mental disorders classified by age and sex of offspring (n=100)
jkna-53-310-i005

*: Comorbidities are possible. ADHD: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, DBD: Disruptive behavior disorders, MDD: Major depressive disorder, NOS: Not otherwise specified

Table 5
Family psychiatric histories of the offspring of bipolar parents (n=65)
jkna-53-310-i006

*: Comorbidities are possible, : Spouse of the bipolar informant parent. ADHD: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

Notes

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.

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