Journal List > J Korean Neuropsychiatr Assoc > v.51(5) > 1017593

Kim, Kwon, Shim, Jeong, Kwon, and Lee: The Association Study between Mood Disorder Questionnaire and Bipolar Spectrum Disorder in Major Depressive Disorder



This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) among patients who have been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. In addition, authors assessed the practical usefulness of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to investigate the frequency of bipolar spectrum disorder in major depressive disorder.


The participants were 70 depressive patients who have never been diagnosed with bipolar disorders. The subjects were interviewed for diagnosis using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to exclude bipolar disorders from the subjects. BSD criteria (as defined by Ghaemi, et al. 2002), and Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ) was used to investigate their bipolarity. Data were collected including family history of affective disorder, number of previous depressive episode, age of onset, history of suicide attempt, comorbid psychiatric illness, and drug and alcohol use.


Among 70 subjects, 25 patients (35.7%) were classified as having bipolar spectrum disorder on BSD criteria, while other 45 patients (64.3%) as unipolar depression. Among the 25 patients who meet the BSD criteria, 24 patients (34.3%) scored more than 7 and only 1 patient (1.4%) scored less than 6 on K-MDQ. Among the 45 patients who don't meet BSD criteria, 40 patients (57.1%) scored less than 6 and only 5 patients (7.1%) scored more than 7 on K-MDQ. Early age of onset, recurrent depressive episode, brief depressive episode, bipolar family history, history of suicide attempt, antidepressant induced hypomania, hyperthymic temperament, atypical depressive symptom, psychotic depressive symptom, and antidepressant "wear off" were found to be highly related with MDQ positive subjects and BSD subjects among the depressive subjects.


The result of this study demonstrates the high frequency of BSD in depressive patients who have never been diagnosed with bipolar disorders. Some BSD criteria can be used to differentiate BSD subjects from the subjects with major depressive disorder. Also these results indicate that K-MDQ is useful for screening of bipolar spectrum disorder.

Figures and Tables

Table 1
The frequencies of bipolar spectrum disorder criteria and Mood Disorder Questionnaire responders among depressive patients

* : A positive screen is defined as endorsement of any 7 of the 13 questions excluding items 2 and 3. BSD : Bipolar spectrum disorder, MDQ : Mood Disorder Questionnaire

Table 2
Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects

BSD : Bipolar Spectrum Disorder, SD : Standard deviation, M : male, F : Female

Table 3
Comparisons of clinical features between bipolar spectrum disorder criteria positive/negative subjects and Mood Disorder Questionnaire positive/negative subjects

BSD : Bipolar Spectrum Disorder, MDQ : Mood Disorder Questionnaire


The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.


Appendix A

Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Criteria (Based on Ghaemi, et al.)


Appendix B

Hyperthymic Temperament (Based on Akiskal, et al.)



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